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Datasheet: TH7107 (Melexis, Inc.)

315/433MHz Fsk/fm/ask Transmitter

 

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TH7107
315/433MHz
FSK/FM/ASK Transmitter
3901007107
Page 1 of 16
Data Sheet
Rev. 008
May/03
Features
!
Fully integrated, PLL-stabilized VCO
!
Frequency range from 310 MHz to 440 MHz
!
FSK through crystal pulling allows modulation
from DC to 40 kbit/s
!
High FSK deviation possible for wideband data
transmission
!
ASK achieved by on/off keying of internal
power amplifier
!
FM possible with external varactor
!
Wide power supply range from 2.2 V to 5.5 V
!
High over-all frequency accuracy
!
Very low standby current
!
Adjustable output power range from
-12 dBm to +2 dBm
!
Adjustable current consumption from
4.8 mA to 11.5 mA
!
FSK deviation and center frequency independ-
ently adjustable
!
Differential output well-suited for loop antenna
!
External clock available for C drive,
down to 1.9 V supply
!
"Clock only" mode
!
Conforms to EN 300 220 and similar standards


Ordering Information
Part No.
Temperature Code
Package Code
TH7107
E (-40 C to 85 C)
FC (QSOP16)



Application
Examples Pin
Description

!
Keyless car and central locking
!
Low-power
telemetry
!
Alarm and security systems
!
General digital data transmission
!
General analog audio signal transmission





General Description

The TH7107 FSK/ASK/FM transmitter IC is designed for applications in the European 433MHz industrial-
scientific-medical (ISM) band, according to the EN 300 220 telecommunications standard. It can also be
used for any other system with carrier frequencies ranging from 310 MHz to 440 MHz (e.g. for applications
in the US 315MHz ISM band).
The transmitter's carrier frequency f
c
is determined by the frequency of the reference crystal f
ref
that is used.
The integrated PLL synthesizer ensures that each RF value, ranging from 310 MHz to 440 MHz, can be
achieved by using a crystal with reference frequency according to: f
ref
= f
c
/N, where N = 32 is the PLL feed-
back divider ratio.
LF1
LF2
RO2
DATA
SUB
OUT1
VEE
VCC
TH7107
1
2
3
4
16
15
14
13
5
6
7
8
12
11
10
9
ENTX
RO1
CKOUT
ENCK
OUT2
PS
VCC
VEE
TH7107
315/433MHz
FSK/FM/ASK Transmitter
3901007107
Page 2 of 16
Data Sheet
Rev. 008
May/03
Document Content
1
Theory of Operation...................................................................................................3
1.1
General............................................................................................................................... 3
1.2
Block Diagram .................................................................................................................... 3
2
Functional Description ..............................................................................................4
2.1
FSK Modulation .................................................................................................................. 4
2.2
Frequency Modulation ........................................................................................................ 4
2.3
ASK Modulation.................................................................................................................. 4
2.4
Mode Control Logic............................................................................................................. 4
3
Pin Definition and Description ..................................................................................5
4
Electrical Characteristics ..........................................................................................7
4.1
Absolute Maximum Ratings ................................................................................................ 7
4.2
Normal Operating Conditions.............................................................................................. 7
4.3
Crystal Parameters............................................................................................................. 7
4.4
DC Characteristics.............................................................................................................. 8
4.5
AC Characteristics.............................................................................................................. 8
4.6
Output Power Selection ...................................................................................................... 8
5
Crystal Pulling ............................................................................................................9
5.1
Center Frequency as Function of CX1 and CX2 ................................................................. 9
5.2
Frequency Deviation as Function of CX1 and CX2 ........................................................... 10
6
Test Circuit ...............................................................................................................11
6.1
Test circuit component list (Fig. 4) .................................................................................... 11
7
Spectrum Plots.........................................................................................................12
8
Package Information................................................................................................14
9
Reliability Information..............................................................................................15
10
ESD Precautions ......................................................................................................15
11
Disclaimer .................................................................................................................16


TH7107
315/433MHz
FSK/FM/ASK Transmitter
3901007107
Page 3 of 16
Data Sheet
Rev. 008
May/03
1 Theory of Operation
1.1 General
As depicted in Fig.1, the TH7107 transmitter consists of a fully integrated voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO),
a divide-by-32 divider (div32), a phase-frequency detector (PFD) and a charge pump. An external loop filter
at pin LF determines the dynamic behavior of the PLL and suppresses reference spurious signals. The
VCO's output signal feeds the power amplifier (PA). RF signal power P
o
can be adjusted in six steps from
P
o
= 12 dBm to +2 dBm either by changing the value of resistor RPS
or by varying the voltage V
PS
at pin
PS. The open-collector differential output (OUT1, OUT2) can be used to either directly drive a loop antenna
or to be converted to a single-ended impedance by means of a balanced-to-unbalanced (balun) transformer.
For maximum available output power, the differential output should be matched to a load of about 1 k
.
Bandgap biasing ensures stable operation of the IC at a power supply range of 2.2 V to 5.5 V.




1.2 Block
Diagram



Fig. 1: Block diagram with external components

LF1
1
16
2
LF2
SUB
PA
mode
control
VCO
PFD
div32
charge
pump
RF1
RPS
CF2
CF1
VCC
PS
15
9
DATA
CKOUT
3
4
5
8
XOSC
div 4
RO2
RO1
XTAL
CX1
CX2
VCC
10
VEE
14
OUT1
OUT2
VCC
13
12
11
ENTX
VEE
ENCK
7
6
antenna
or
balun
TH7107
315/433MHz
FSK/FM/ASK Transmitter
3901007107
Page 4 of 16
Data Sheet
Rev. 008
May/03
2 Functional
Description
2.1 FSK
Modulation
A Colpitts crystal oscillator (XOSC) is used as the reference oscillator of a phase-locked loop (PLL) synthe-
sizer. FSK modulation is achieved by pulling the crystal (XTAL) through the data. So a CMOS-compatible
data stream applied at input DATA digitally modulates the XOSC. Two external pulling capacitors CX1 and
CX2 allow the FSK deviation and center frequency to be adjusted independently. At DATA = LOW CX2 is
connected in parallel to CX1 leading to the low-frequency component of the FSK spectrum (f
min
); while at
DATA = HIGH CX2 is deactivated and the XOSC is set to its high frequency, leading to f
max
.
An external reference signal can be directly AC-coupled to pin RO1. Then the TH7107 is used without an
XTAL. The reference signal has to contain the FSK (or FM) and sets the carrier frequency.
2.2 Frequency
Modulation
For FM operation an external varactor is required. It simply acts as a pulling capacitor connected in series to
the crystal. Then the analog modulation signal, applied through a series resistor, directly modulates the
XOSC.
2.3 ASK
Modulation
The TH7107 can be ASK-modulated by applying data directly at pin PS. This turns the PA on and off and
therefore leads to an ASK signal at the output.
2.4 Mode Control Logic
The mode control logic allows four different modes of operation as listed in the following table. The mode
control pins ENCK and ENTX are pulled-down internally. This guarantees that the whole circuit is shut down
if these pins are left floating.
The clock output CKOUT can be used to drive a C. This output can be activated by the ENCK pin as re-
quired for any specific application. Clock frequency is 1/4 of the reference crystal frequency.
ENCK
ENTX
Mode
Description
0
0
all OFF
whole circuit in standby
0
1
TX only
TX active, no clock available
1
0
clock only
TX standby and clock available
1
1
all ON
TX active and clock available



TH7107
315/433MHz
FSK/FM/ASK Transmitter
3901007107
Page 5 of 16
Data Sheet
Rev. 008
May/03
3 Pin Definition and Description
Pin No.
Name
I/O Type
Functional Schematic
Description
1 LF1
output
LF1
1
200
charge pump output, con-
nection to loop filter
2 SUB
ground
negative power supply, sub-
strate connection
3 DATA
input
DATA
3
1.8k
FSK data input,
CMOS-compatible
4 RO2
analog
I/O
RO2
4
XOSC FSK pulling pin,
MOS switch
5 RO1
analog
I/O
RO1
5
28p
28p
37k
XOSC connection to XTAL,
Colpitts type crystal oscilla-
tor
6 ENTX
input
ENTX
6
1.1k
mode control input, CMOS-
compatible with internal pull-
down
7 ENCK
input
ENCK
7
1.1k
mode control input, CMOS-
compatible with internal pull-
down


TH7107
315/433MHz
FSK/FM/ASK Transmitter
3901007107
Page 6 of 16
Data Sheet
Rev. 008
May/03


Pin No.
Name
I/O Type
Functional Schematic
Description
8 CKOUT output
CKOUT
8
200
clock output,
CMOS-compatible
9 PS
analog
I/O
PS
9
200
20A
power-select and ASK input,
high-impedance comparator
logic

TX standby: I
PS
= 0
TX active: I
PS
= 20A
10
VCC
supply
positive power supply
11 VEE
ground
negative
power
supply
12
OUT2
output
differential power amplifier
output, open collector
13 OUT1
output
VCC
VEE
VEE
VCC
OUT2
12
VEE
13
OUT1
differential power amplifier
output, open collector
14 VEE
ground
negative power supply
15 VCC
supply
positive power supply
16 LF2
input
LF2
16
200
5p
VCO tuning input, connec-
tion from loop filter


TH7107
315/433MHz
FSK/FM/ASK Transmitter
3901007107
Page 7 of 16
Data Sheet
Rev. 008
May/03
4 Electrical
Characteristics
4.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings
Parameter
Symbol
Condition
Min
Max
Unit
Supply voltage
V
CC
0
7.0
V
Input voltage
V
IN
-0.3 V
CC
+0.3 V
Storage temperature
T
STG
-65
150
C
Junction temperature
T
J
150
C
Thermal Resistance
R
thJA
112
K/W
Power dissipation
P
diss
0.12
W
V
ESD1
human body model, 1)
-1.0
+1.0
Electrostatic discharge
V
ESD2
human body model, 2)
-0.75
+0.75
kV
1) all pins except OUT1, OUT2
2) pins OUT1, OUT2

4.2 Normal Operating Conditions
Parameter
Symbol
Condition
Min
Max
Unit
Supply voltage
V
CC
2.2
5.5
V
Operating temperature
T
A
-40
85
C
Input low voltage CMOS
V
IL
ENTX, ENCK, DTA pins
0.3*V
CC
V
Input high voltage CMOS
V
IH
ENTX, ENCK, DTA pins
0.7*V
CC
V
XOSC frequency
f
ref
set by the crystal
9.7
13.75
MHz
VCO frequency
f
c
f
c
= 32
f
ref
310 440 MHz
Clock frequency
f
clk
f
c
= f
ref
/ 4
2.4
3.4
MHz
FSK deviation
f
FSK
depends on CX1, CX2 and
crystal parameter
5
100
kHz
Data rate FSK
R
FSK
NRZ
40
kbit/s
FM deviation
f
FM
adjustable with V1 and CX3
6
kHz
Modulation frequency FM
f
mod
5
kHz
Data rate ASK
R
ASK
NRZ
40
kbit/s

4.3 Crystal
Parameters
Parameter
Symbol
Condition
Min
Max
Unit
Crystal frequency
f
0
fundamental mode, AT
9.7
13.75
MHz
Load capacitance
C
L
10
15
pF
Static capacitance
C
0
7
pF
Resonance resistance
R
1
60
Spurious response
a
spur
only required for FSK
-10
dB
TH7107
315/433MHz
FSK/FM/ASK Transmitter
3901007107
Page 8 of 16
Data Sheet
Rev. 008
May/03
4.4 DC
Characteristics
all parameters under normal operating conditions, unless otherwise stated;
typical values at T
A
= 23 C and V
CC
= 3 V
Parameter
Symbol
Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Standby current
I
SBY
ENCK=0,
ENTX=0
0.05 0.1
A
Clock only current
I
CLK
ENCK=1,
ENTX=0
0.7
0.9
1.6
mA
Operating current
I
CC
ENCK=x,
ENTX=1,
RPS=56k
6 8.6 12 mA
Input current
I
IN
DATA=x,
ENCK=0,
ENTX=0
-1 1 A
Pull down current
I
PD
ENCK=1,
ENTX=1
3
8
30
A
Pull up current
I
PS
ENCK=1,
ENTX=1
14
20
24
A
MOS switch On resistance
R
ON
DATA=0,
ENTX=1
10
25
80

4.5 AC
Characteristics
all parameters under normal operating conditions, unless otherwise stated;
typical values at T
A
= 23 C and V
CC
= 3 V;
ENCK = 1, ENTX = 1, RPS = 56 k
, f
c
= 433.6 MHz, test circuit shown in Fig. 4
Parameter
Symbol
Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Output power
P
o
-1
dBm
Reference spurs
P
ref
@ f
c
f
ref
-44 dBm
Clock spurs
P
clk
@ f
c
f
clk
-44 dBm
Harmonic content
P
harm
@
2f
c
, 3f
c
, 4f
c
-40
dBm
Spurious output signal
P
off
V
PS
0.1V
-60 dBm
Phase noise
PN
@ f
c
200kHz
-83
-79
dBc/Hz
VCO gain
K
VCO
200
MHz/V
Charge pump current
I
CP
260
A
Clock voltage swing
V
CKOUT
C
load
= 5pF
2
V
pp
Start-up time
t
on
from "all OFF" to any
other mode
1.2
1.4
ms

4.6 Output Power Selection
typical values at T
A
= 23 C and V
CC
= 3 V:
ENCK = 1, ENTX = 1, f
c
= 433.6 MHz, test circuit shown in Fig. 4
RPS / k



68
56
47
39
27
15
V
PS
/ V



2
1.1
0.9
0.7
0.5
0.3
I
cc
/
mA
11.5 8.6 7.3 6.2 5.3 4.8
P
o
/
dBm
2 -1 -4 -7 -10 -12
P
harm
/ dBm
-40
-40
-40
-45
-45
-50
TH7107
315/433MHz
FSK/FM/ASK Transmitter
3901007107
Page 9 of 16
Data Sheet
Rev. 008
May/03
5 Crystal Pulling
5.1 Center Frequency as Function of CX1 and CX2
The center frequency f
C
is defined as (f
max
+ f
min
) /2.
typical values at T
A
= 23 C and V
CC
= 3 V:
XTAL = 13.55 MHz, Cload = 15 pF, shown in Fig. 2
CX2 = 1 nF
CX2 = 100 pF
CX2 = 47 pF
CX1 / pF
f
C
/ MHz
f
C
/ MHz
f
C
/ MHz
22
433.612 433.619 433.625
32
433.604 433.610 433.614
40
433.598 433.604 433.608
49
433.596 433.601 433.604
61
433.593 433.598 433.600
104 433.587






Fig. 2: Center frequency vs. CX1, at different CX2


433.590
433.595
433.600
433.605
433.610
433.615
433.620
433.625
433.630
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Cx1/pF
Cx2 = 1nF
CX2 = 100pF
Cx2 = 47pF
f/
M
H
z
C
TH7107
315/433MHz
FSK/FM/ASK Transmitter
3901007107
Page 10 of 16
Data Sheet
Rev. 008
May/03
5.2 Frequency Deviation as Function of CX1 and CX2
The frequency deviation f is defined as (f
max
- f
min
) /2.
typical values at T
A
= 23 C and V
CC
= 3 V:
XTAL = 13.55 MHz, Cload = 15 pF, shown in Fig. 3
CX2 = 1 nF
CX2 = 100 pF
CX2 = 47 pF
CX1 / pF






f / kHz






f / kHz






f / kHz
22 34 27 21
32 25 19 14
40 20 14 10
49 17 11.5 8
61 13 9 5.5
104 8






Fig. 3: Frequency deviation vs. CX1, at different CX2






0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Cx1/pF
Cx2 = 1nF
CX2 = 100pF
Cx2 = 47pF

f /
k
H
z
TH7107
315/433MHz
FSK/FM/ASK Transmitter
3901007107
Page 11 of 16
Data Sheet
Rev. 008
May/03
6 Test Circuit



Fig. 4:
Test circuit for FSK, ASK and FM;
with 50
matching network

















6.1 Test circuit component list (Fig. 4)
Part
Size
Value
Tolerance
Description
CF1 0603
10
nF
10%
loop filter capacitor
CF2 0603
12
pF
10%
loop filter capacitor
CX1
_FSK
0603
39
pF
5%
XOSC capacitor for FSK (
f =
20 kHz),
note 1
CX1
_ASK
0603
68
pF
5%
XOSC capacitor for ASK, trimmed to f
C,
note 1
CX2
0603
1 nF
5%
XOSC capacitor (for FSK only),
note 1
CX3 0603
1
nF
10%
XOSC capacitor (for FM only)
C1 0603
2.7
pF
5%
impedance matching capacitor
C2 0805
0.68
pF
5%
impedance matching capacitor
C3 0805
3.9
pF
5%
impedance matching capacitor
C4 0603
150
pF
5%
impedance matching capacitor
C5 0603
330
pF
10%
blocking capacitor
C6 0603
330
pF
10%
blocking capacitor
C7 1206
220
nF
20%
blocking capacitor
L1 0603
22
nH
5%
impedance matching inductor
L2 0603
22
nH
5%
impedance matching inductor
L3 0805
33
nH
5%
impedance matching inductor
RF1 0805
2.0 k
10%
loop filter resistor
RF2 0805
4.3 k
10%
loop filter resistor
RPS 0805
56 k
10%
power-select resistor
R1 0805
470 k
10%
optional pull-up resistor
R2 0805
30 k
10%
varactor bias resistor, (for FM only)
R3 0805
0
10%
ASK jumper, (for ASK only)
V1
SOD323
BB535
varactor diode (for FM only)
XTAL HC49/S
13.55 MHz
fundamental wave
30ppm calibr.
30ppm temp.
crystal, C
load
= 12 pF to 15 pF, C
0, max
= 7 pF,
R
m, max
= 40
Note 1:
value depends on crystal parameters
LF2
VC
C
VC
C
PS
VE
E
VE
E
OU
T
1
OU
T
2
EN
T
X
SU
B
LF1
DA
T
A
RO
1
RO
2
E
NCK
CK
O
U
T
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
XTAL
CX2
CX1
RF1
R2
R3
CX3
R1
CF1
CF2
C7
RPS
8
RF2
V1
EN
T
X
GN
D
CK
O
U
T
GN
D
EN
C
K
GN
D
VC
C
1 2
1 2
1 2
3
VC
C
GN
D
1 2
FS
K
GN
D
1 2
FM
/
A
S
K
GN
D
1 2
L2
C6
L1
C5
C1
OUT
L3
C3
C4
C2
TH7107
315/433MHz
FSK/FM/ASK Transmitter
3901007107
Page 12 of 16
Data Sheet
Rev. 008
May/03
7 Spectrum
Plots

All plots depict TH7107`s typical performance at V
CC
= 3.0 V and T
A
= 23 C,
derived with the test circuit shown in Fig. 4.



















Fig. 5: RF output signal and spurious emissions, CW mode (DATA = HIGH)





















Fig. 6: Single-sideband phase noise at 500 kHz offset, CW mode (DATA = HIGH)



TH7107
315/433MHz
FSK/FM/ASK Transmitter
3901007107
Page 13 of 16
Data Sheet
Rev. 008
May/03

















Fig. 7: FSK modulation with R
FSK
= 6.6 kbit/s NRZ















Fig. 8: ASK modulation with R
ASK
= 4 kbit/s NRZ















Fig. 9: FM with f
mod
= 2 kHz, FM input signal with 1 V
pp
around 1.5 V
DC
, DATA = HIGH
TH7107
315/433MHz
FSK/FM/ASK Transmitter
3901007107
Page 14 of 16
Data Sheet
Rev. 008
May/03
8 Package
Information



Fig. 10: QSOP16 (Quarter size Small Outline Package)




all Dimension in mm, coplanarity < 0.1mm
D
E1
E
A
A1
A2
e
b
ZD
C
L

min 4.80 3.81 5.79 1.35 0.10 1.37
0.20
0.19 0.40 0
max 4.98 3.99 6.20 1.75 0.25 1.50
0.635
0.30
0.230
0.25 1.27 8
all Dimension in inch, coplanarity < 0.004"
min 0.189 0.150 0.228
0.0532
0.0040 0.054
0.008
0.075 0.016 0
max 0.196 0.157 0.244 0.0688
0.0098 0.059
0.025
0.012
0.009
0.098 0.050 8

7
3
+
7
L
0.254
(0.010)
DETAIL-A
0.36 x 45
(0.0014x45)
BSC
DETAIL-A
C
E
b
ZD
e
D
1
16
E1
A1
A2
A
.10 (.004)
TH7107
315/433MHz
FSK/FM/ASK Transmitter
3901007107
Page 15 of 16
Data Sheet
Rev. 008
May/03
9 Reliability
Information

Melexis devices are classified and qualified regarding suitability for infrared, vapor phase and wave soldering
with usual (63/37 SnPb-) solder (melting point at 183degC).
The following test methods are applied:
IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020A (issue April 1999)
Moisture/Reflow Sensitivity Classification For Nonhermetic Solid State Surface Mount Devices
CECC00802 (issue 1994)
Standard Method For The Specification of Surface Mounting Components (SMDs) of Assessed Quality
MIL 883 Method 2003 / JEDEC-STD-22 Test Method B102
Solderability

For all soldering technologies deviating from above mentioned standard conditions (regarding peak
temperature, temperature gradient, temperature profile etc) additional classification and qualification tests
have to be agreed upon with Melexis.

The application of Wave Soldering for SMD's is allowed only after consulting Melexis regarding assurance of
adhesive strength between device and board.

For more information on manufacturability/solderability see quality page at our website:
http://www.melexis.com/
10 ESD Precautions

Electronic semiconductor products are sensitive to Electro Static Discharge (ESD).
Always observe Electro Static Discharge control procedures whenever handling semiconductor products.




Your Notes










TH7107
315/433MHz
FSK/FM/ASK Transmitter
3901007107
Page 16 of 16
Data Sheet
Rev. 008
May/03
11 Disclaimer

Devices sold by Melexis are covered by the warranty and patent indemnification provisions appearing in its
Term of Sale. Melexis makes no warranty, express, statutory, implied, or by description regarding the
information set forth herein or regarding the freedom of the described devices from patent infringement.
Melexis reserves the right to change specifications and prices at any time and without notice. Therefore, prior
to designing this product into a system, it is necessary to check with Melexis for current information. This
product is intended for use in normal commercial applications. Applications requiring extended temperature
range, unusual environmental requirements, or high reliability applications, such as military, medical life-
support or life-sustaining equipment are specifically not recommended without additional processing by
Melexis for each application.
The information furnished by Melexis is believed to be correct and accurate. However, Melexis shall not be
liable to recipient or any third party for any damages, including but not limited to personal injury, property
damage, loss of profits, loss of use, interrupt of business or indirect, special incidental or consequential
damages, of any kind, in connection with or arising out of the furnishing, performance or use of the technical
data herein. No obligation or liability to recipient or any third party shall arise or flow out of Melexis' rendering
of technical or other services.
2002 Melexis NV. All rights reserved.
























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