progress monitoring" function known as CPM. CPM circuits "listen" to the lines as a
human would, and respond according to what they "hear." You shouldn't dial a number
unless you first hear a dial tone, for example. Neither should your computer.
use of computers for this purpose has produced a need for tone-accuracy specifications to
prevent errors in interpretation. Accordingly, CCITT has introduced the North American
Precise Audible Tone Plan (the following data is from the CCITT Green Book, Volume
▒0.5% accurate in frequency, and they must be gated as shown in the "Cadence" column
generation portion of a test stimulus for CPM circuits.
IC1 acts as a summing amplifier. The amplifier's gain level assures that 5V-logic
inputs will not cause clipping at the two-tone output.
same frequency. The simplest technique is to filter a square wave of the desired
frequency; removing its harmonics leaves you with the fundamental sine wave-the
desired signal. For a dual-tone generator you would seem to need two harmonic-removal
filters, but a single filter will do if the two square waves are reasonably close in
removed (the critical frequency) is the third harmonic of the lower-frequency square
wave. The filter must pass the fundamental of the higher-frequency square wave. To
avoid using two filters, each of these square-wave frequencies must be an even-integer
divisor of the filter's switched-capacitor clock. (This requirement forces the signal to be
square-i.e., with a 50% duty cycle.)
frequency must be greater than the filter's transition ratio. (Transition ratio is the edge of
generating each tone pair (or tone) are summarized in the table below.
corner ratio of 100, meets each of these four sets of requirements. Setting the cutoff
frequency to 528Hz, for example, allows 440Hz and 480Hz to pass. The resulting 792Hz
stopband (528Hz times the 1.5 transition ratio) blocks the critical third harmonic of
440Hz (1320Hz), enabling generation of the ringing signal.
and 110. The division scheme (left to the reader) can be implemented with simple logic, a
PAL, or an up-counter/timer chip. If you use a programmable divider, you should follow
it with a divide-by-two circuit to assure a 50% duty cycle. (The other CPM signals are
produced in a similar way.)
frequency domain (Figure 3). The frequency domain shows that the generator is free of
spurious tones. In some CPM applications, tone detection involves a combination of
frequency verification and guard margin. By verifying that tone energy is sufficiently
above the remaining spectral energy, the tone margin ensures that voice and other signals
won't fool the system into thinking a CPM tone is present.
tones for the "ringing" signal (lower traces), and the sinusoidal filtered sum (top
amplitude spur (spurious frequency) is at least 54dB down from the twin-tone