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Datasheet: AD1848KST (Analog Devices)

Parallel-Port 16-Bit SoundPort Stereo Codec

 

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Analog Devices
a
Parallel-Port 16-Bit
SoundPort Stereo Codec
AD1848K
FEATURES
Single-Chip Integrated
Digital Audio Stereo Codec
Supports the Microsoft Windows Sound System®
Multiple Channels of Stereo Input
Analog and Digital Signal Mixing
Programmable Gain and Attenuation
On-Chip Signal Filters
Digital Interpolation
Analog Output Low-Pass
Sample Rates from 5.5 kHz to 48 kHz
68-Lead PLCC and 68-Lead TQFP Packages
Operation from +5 V Supplies
Byte-Wide Parallel Interface to ISA and EISA Buses
Supports One or Two DMA Channels and
Programmed I/O
supply. It provides a direct, byte-wide interface to both ISA
("AT") and EISA computer buses for simplified implementa-
tion on a computer motherboard or add-in card. The AD1848K
generates enable and direction controls for IC buffers such as
74_245.
The AD1848K SoundPort Stereo Codec supports a DMA re-
quest/grant architecture for transferring data with the host com-
puter bus. One or two DMA channels can be supported.
Programmed I/O (PIO) mode is also supported for control
register accesses and for applications lacking DMA control. Two
input control lines support mixed direct and indirect addressing
of twenty-one internal control registers over this asynchronous
interface.
External circuit requirements are limited to a minimal number
of low cost support components. Anti-imaging DAC output fil-
ters are incorporated on-chip. Dynamic range exceeds 80 dB
over the 20 kHz audio band. Sample rates from 5.5 kHz to
48 kHz are supported from external crystals.
The Codec includes a stereo pair of
analog-to-digital
converters and a stereo pair of
digital-to-analog converters.
Inputs to the ADC can be selected from four stereo pairs of
(Continued on page 9)
REV. 0
Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and
reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its
use, nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties
which may result from its use. No license is granted by implication or
otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Analog Devices.
One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A.
Tel: 617/329-4700
Fax: 617/326-8703
PRODUCT OVERVIEW
The Parallel-Port AD1848K SoundPort® Stereo Codec inte-
grates the key audio data conversion and control functions into
a single integrated circuit. The AD1848K is intended to provide
a complete, single-chip audio solution for business audio and
multimedia applications requiring operation from a single +5 V
SoundPort is a registered trademark of Analog Devices, Inc.
FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
MUX
A/D
CONVERTER
P
A
R
A
L
L
E
L
P
O
R
T
ANALOG
CRYSTALS
ANALOG
SUPPLY
DIGITAL
SUPPLY
POWER DOWN
20
dB
L_LINE
R_LINE
L_MIC
R_MIC
L
R
GAIN
L
R
µ
/
A
L
A
W
OSCILLATORS
REFERENCE
2.25V
L_AUX1
R_AUX1
R_OUT
GAIN/ATTEN/MUTE
L_AUX2
R_AUX2
DIGITAL
µ
/
A
L
A
W
DATA7:0
ADR1:0
CS
WR
RD
BUS DRIVER
CONTROL
PLAYBACK ACK
PLAYBACK REQ
CAPTURE ACK
CAPTURE REQ
HOST DMA
INTERRUPT
EXTERNAL
CONTROL
CONTROL
REGS
DIGITAL
MIX
16
A/D
CONVERTER
16
D/A
CONVERTER
D/A
CONVERTER
ANALOG
FILTER
GAIN
ANALOG
FILTER
2
2
2
2
2
8
INTERPOL
INTERPOL
ATTENUATE
ATTENUATE
L_OUT
ATTEN/
MUTE
ATTEN/
MUTE
GAIN/ATTEN/MUTE
AD1848K­SPECIFICATIONS
REV. 0
­2­
STANDARD TEST CONDITIONS UNLESS
OTHERWISE NOTED
Temperature
25
°
C
Digital Supply (V
DD
)
5.0
V
Analog Supply (V
CC
)
5.0
V
Word Rate (F
S
)
48
kHz
Input Signal
1008
Hz
Analog Output Passband
20 Hz to 20 kHz
ADC FFT Size
2048
DAC FFT Size
8192
V
IH
2.4
V
V
IL
0.8
V
V
OH
2.4
V
V
OL
0.4
V
ANALOG INPUT
Min
Typ
Max
Units
Input Voltage (RMS Values Assume Sine Wave Input)
Line
1
V rms
2.6
2.8
3.0
V p-p
Mic with +20 dB Gain (MGE = 1)
0.1
V rms
0.26
0.28
0.3
V p-p
Mic with 0 dB Gain (MGE = 0)
1
V rms
2.6
2.8
3.0
V p-p
Input Impedance
20
k
Input Capacitance
15
pF
PROGRAMMABLE GAIN AMPLIFIER--ADC
Min
Typ
Max
Units
Step Size (0 dB to 22.5 dB)
1.3
1.5
1.7
dB
(All Steps Tested, ­30 dB Input)
PGA Gain Range Span*
21.5
22.5
23.5
dB
AUXILIARY INPUT ANALOG AMPLIFIERS/ATTENUATORS
Min
Typ
Max
Units
Step Size (+12.0 dB to ­33.0 dB)
1.3
1.5
1.7
dB
(All Steps Tested, ­14.5 dB Input)
Auxiliary Gain/Attenuation Range Span*
45.5
46.5
47.5
dB
DAC Input Conditions
Post-Autocalibrated
0 dB Attenuation
­2.0 dB Relative to Full Scale
16-Bit Linear Mode
No Output Load
Mute Off
ADC Input Conditions
Post-Autocalibrated
0 dB Gain
­3.0 dB Relative to Full Scale
Line Input
16-Bit Linear Mode
DIGITAL DECIMATION AND INTERPOLATION FILTERS*
Min
Max
Units
Passband
0
0.45 F
S
Hz
Passband Ripple
±
0.1
dB
Transition Band
0.45 F
S
0.55 F
S
Hz
Stopband
0.55 F
S
Hz
Stopband Rejection
74
dB
Group Delay
30/F
S
Group Delay Variation Over Passband
0.0
µ
s
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTERS
Min
Typ
Max
Units
Resolution (No Missing Codes from
16
Bits
±
10 LSB Ramp Around Midscale)*
Dynamic Range (­60 dB Input,
80
86
dB
THD+N Referenced to Full Scale)
THD+N (Referenced to Full Scale)
0.022
%
­77
­73
dB
Signal-to-Intermodulation Distortion*
90
dB
ADC Crosstalk*
Line Inputs (Input L, Ground R, Read R;
­80
dB
Input R, Ground L, Read L)
Line to MIC (Input LINE, Ground and
­80
dB
Select MIC, Read Both Channels)
Line to AUX1
­80
dB
Line to AUX2
­80
dB
Gain Error (Full-Scale Span Relative to Nominal)
±
5
%
Interchannel Gain Mismatch
±
0.5
dB
(Difference of Gain Errors)
ADC Offset Error
50
LSBs
DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERTERS
Min
Typ
Max
Units
Resolution*
16
Bits
Dynamic Range (­60 dB Input,
80
87
dB
THD+N Referenced to Full Scale)
THD+N (Referenced to Full Scale)
0.02
%
­76
­74
dB
Signal-to-Intermodulation Distortion*
90
dB
Gain Error (Full-Scale Span Relative to Nominal)
±
5
%
Interchannel Gain Mismatch
±
0.5
dB
(Difference of Gain Errors)
DAC Crosstalk* (Input L, Zero R, Measure
­80
dB
R_OUT; Input R, Zero L, Measure L_OUT)
Total Out-of-Band Energy*
­45
dB
(Measured from 0.55
×
F
S
to 100 kHz)
Audible Out-of-Band Energy*
­70
dB
(Measured from 0.55
×
F
S
to 22 kHz,
All Selectable Sampling Frequencies)
*Guaranteed Not Tested.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
AD1848K
REV. 0
­3­
AD1848K
REV. 0
­4­
DAC ATTENUATOR
Min
Typ
Max
Units
Step Size (0 dB to ­34.5 dB)
1.3
1.5
1.7
dB
Step Size (­60 dB to ­94.5 dB)*
1.0
1.5
2.0
dB
Output Attenuation Range Span*
93.5
94.5
95.5
dB
ANALOG OUTPUT
Min
Typ
Max
Units
Full-Scale Output Voltage
0.707
Vrms
1.85
2.0
2.1
V p-p
Output Impedance
600
External Load Impedance
10
k
Output Capacitance
15
pF
External Load Capacitance
100
pF
V
REF
2.10
2.25
2.40
V
V
REF
Current Drive
100
µ
A
V
REF
Output Impedance
4
k
Mute Attenuation of 0 dB
­80
dB
Fundamental* (OUT)
Mute Click
5
mV
(|Muted Output Minus Unmuted
Midscale DAC Output|)
SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS
Min
Typ
Max
Units
Peak-to-Peak Frequency Response Ripple*
1.0
dB
(Line In to Line Out)
Differential Nonlinearity*
±
1
Bit
Phase Linearity Deviation*
5
Degrees
STATIC DIGITAL SPECIFICATIONS
Min
Max
Units
High Level Input Voltage (V
IH
)
Digital Inputs
2.4
(VD+) + 0 3
V
XTAL1/2I
2.4
(VD+) + 0 3
V
Low Level Input Voltage (V
IL
)
­0.3
0.8
V
High Level Output Voltage (V
OH
) at I
OH
= ­2 mA
2.4
V
Low Level Output Voltage (V
OL
) at I
OL
= 2 mA
0.4
V
Input Leakage Current
­10
10
µ
A
(GO/NOGO Tested)
Output Leakage Current
­10
10
µ
A
(GO/NOGO Tested)
TIMING PARAMETERS (GUARANTEED OVER OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE AND V
DD
= V
CC
= 5.0 V 5%)
Min
Max
Units
WR
/RD Strobe Width (t
STW
)
110
ns
WR
/RD Rising to WR/RD Falling (t
BWND
)
110
ns
Write Data Setup to WR Rising (t
WDSU
)
22
ns
RD
Falling to Valid Read Data (t
RDDV
)
30
70
ns
CS
Setup to WR/RD Falling (t
CSSU
)
10
ns
CS
Hold from WR/RD Rising (t
CSHD
)
0
ns
Adr Setup to WR/RD Falling (t
ADSU
)
10
ns
Adr Hold from WR/RD Rising (t
ADHD
)
10
ns
DAK
Rising to WR/RD Falling (t
SUDK1
)
60
ns
DAK
Falling to WR/RD Rising (t
SUDK2
)
0
ns
DAK
Setup to WR/RD Falling (t
DKSU
)
25
ns
Data Hold from RD Rising (t
DHD1
)
0
20
ns
Data Hold from WR Rising (t
DHD2
)
15
ns
DRQ Hold from WR/RD Falling (t
DRHD
)
0
25
ns
DAK
Hold from WR Rising (t
DKHDa
)
50
ns
DAK
Hold from RD Rising (t
DKHDb
)
50
ns
DBEN
/DBDIR delay from WR/RD Falling (t
DBDL
)
0
30
ns
POWER SUPPLY
Min
Max
Units
Power Supply Range ­ Analog
4.75
5.25
V
Power Supply Range ­ 5 V Digital
4.75
5.25
V
Power Supply Current ­ 5 V Operating
120
mA
(5 V Supplies, 10 k
Load)
Analog Supply Current ­ 5 V Operating (10 k
Load)
65
mA
Digital Supply Current ­ 5 V Operating (10 k
Load)
55
mA
Digital Power Supply Current ­ Power Down
1
mA
Analog Power Supply Current ­ Power Down
1
mA
Power Dissipation ­ 5 V Operating
600
mW
(Current · Nominal Supplies)
Power Dissipation ­ Power Down
(Current · Nominal Supplies)
10
mW
Power Supply Rejection (100 mV p-p Signal @ 1 kHz)*
40
dB F
S
(At Both Analog and Digital Supply Pins, Both ADCs
and DACs)
CLOCK SPECIFICATIONS*
Min
Max
Units
Input Clock Frequency
27
MHz
Recommended Clock Duty Cycle Tolerance
±
10
%
Initialization Time
16.9344 MHz Crystal Selected
70
ms
24.576 MHz Crystal Selected
90
ms
*Guaranteed, not tested
Specifications subject to change without notice.
AD1848K
REV. 0
­5­
AD1848K
REV. 0
­6­
ORDERING GUIDE
Temperature
Package
Package
Model
Range
Description
Option
AD1848KP
­40
°
C to +85
°
C
68-Lead PLCC
P-68A
AD1848KST
­40
°
C to +85
°
C
64-Lead TQFP
ST-64
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS*
Min
Max
Units
Power Supplies
Digital (V
DD
)
­0.3
6.0
V
Analog (V
CC
)
­0.3
6.0
V
Input Current
(Except Supply Pins)
±
10.0
mA
Analog Input Voltage (Signal Pins) ­0.3
(VA+) + 0.3 V
Digital Input Voltage (Signal Pins) ­0.3
(VD+) + 0.3 V
Ambient Temperature (Operating) ­40
+85
°
C
Storage Temperature
­65
+150
°
C
ESD Tolerance (Human Body
Model per Method 3015.2
of MIL-STD-883B)
1000
V
*Stresses greater than those listed under "Absolute Maximum Ratings" may cause
permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only and functional
operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in
the operational section of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute
maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
WARNING!
ESD SENSITIVE DEVICE
CAUTION
ESD (electrostatic discharge) sensitive device. Electrostatic charges as high as 4000 V readily
accumulate on the human body and test equipment and can discharge without detection.
Although the AD1848K features proprietary ESD protection circuitry, permanent damage may
occur on devices subjected to high energy electrostatic discharges. Therefore, proper ESD
precautions are recommended to avoid performance degradation or loss of functionality.
68-Lead Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier Pinout
ADR0
CDRQ
PDRQ
V
DD
GNDD
XTAL1I
XTAL1O
GNDD
R_FILT
V
DD
GNDD
XTAL2I
XTAL2O
V
DD
PWRDWN
PDAK
CDAK
67 66 65
68
1
2
3
63
62 61
64
5
4
6
7
8
9
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
10
11
12
13
14
15
37 38
39
35
34
33
41 42
43
40
31 32
30
29
28
27
36
53
52
50
49
47
46
45
44
60
59
58
57
56
55
51
48
54
RD
XCTL1
INT
XCTL0
NC
V
DD
GNDD
NC
V
DD
GNDD
CS
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
ADR1
V
DD
DATA0
DATA1
DATA2
DATA3
GNDD
V
DD
DBDIR
GNDD
DATA4
DATA5
DATA6
DATA7
GNDD
WR
DBEN
R_LINE
L_MIC
L_LINE
L_FILT
V
REF
(2.25V)
V
REF
_F (BYPASS)
GNDA
V
CC
R_AUX1
R_MIC
GNDA
L_AUX2
L_AUX1
L_OUT
R_AUX2
R_OUT
V
CC
AD1848K
TOP VIEW
NC = NO CONNECT
64-Lead Thin Quad Flatpack Pinout
AD1848K
TOP VIEW
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
RD
XCTL1
INT
XCTL0
NC
V
DD
GNDD
NC
CS
NC
NC
R_AUX2
WR
V
DD
GNDD
R_AUX1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
ADR0
CDRQ
PDRQ
V
DD
GNDD
XTAL1I
XTAL1O
GNDD
V
DD
GNDD
XTAL2I
XTAL2O
V
DD
PWRDWN
PDAK
CDAK
56 55
54
53
52
51
50
49
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
ADR1
V
DD
DATA0
DATA1
DATA2
DATA3
GNDD
V
DD
DBDIR
GNDD
DATA4
DATA5
DATA6
DATA7
GNDD
DBEN
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 29
30
31
32
R_FILT
R_MIC
L_MIC
L_LINE
R_LINE
V
REF
(2.25V)
V
REF
_F (BYPASS)
GNDA
V
CC
GNDA
L_AUX2
L_AUX1
L_OUT
R_OUT
V
CC
L_FILT
NC = NO CONNECT
AD1848K
REV. 0
­7­
PIN DESCRIPTION
Parallel Interface
Pin Name
PLCC
TQFP
I/O
Description
CDRQ
12
3
O
Capture Data Request. The assertion of this signal indicates that the Codec has a cap-
tured audio sample from the ADC ready for transfer. This signal will remain asserted un-
til all the bytes from the capture buffer have been transferred.
CDAK
11
2
I
Capture Data Acknowledge. The assertion of this active LO signal indicates that the RD
cycle occurring is a DMA read from the capture buffer.
PDRQ
14
5
O
Playback Data Request. The assertion of this signal indicates that the Codec is ready for
more DAC playback data. The signal will remain asserted until all the bytes needed for a
playback sample have been transferred.
PDAK
13
4
I
Playback Data Acknowledge. The assertion of this active LO signal indicates that the WR
cycle occurring is a DMA write to the playback buffer.
ADR1:0
9 & 10
1 & 64
I
Codec Addresses. These address pins are asserted by the Codec interface logic during a
control register/PIO access. The state of these address lines determine which register is
accessed.
RD
60
47
I
Read Command Strobe. This active LO signal defines a read cycle from the Codec. The
cycle may be a read from the control/PIO registers, or the cycles could be a read from the
Codec's DMA sample registers.
WR
61
48
I
Write Command Strobe. This active LO signal indicates a write cycle to the Codec. The
cycle may be a write to the control/PIO registers, or the cycle could be a write to the
Codec's DMA sample registers.
CS
59
46
I
AD1848K Chip Select. The Codec will not respond to any control/PIO cycle accesses
unless this active LO signal is LO. This signal is ignored during DMA transfers.
DATA7:0
3­6 &
52­55 &
I/O
Data Bus. These pins transfer data and control information between the Codec and the
65­68
58­61
host.
DBEN
63
50
O
Data Bus Enable. This pin enables the external bus drivers. This signal is normally HI.
For control register/PIO cycles,
DBEN
= (WR or RD) and CS
For DMA cycles,
DBEN
= (WR or RD) and (PDAK or CDAK)
DBDIR
62
49
O
Data Bus Direction. This pin controls the direction of the data bus transceiver. HI
enables writes from the host to the AD1848K; LO enables reads from the AD1848K to
the host bus. This signal is normally HI.
For control register/PIO cycles,
DBDIR = RD and CS
For DMA cycles,
DBDIR = RD and (PDAK or CDAK)
AD1848K
REV. 0
­8­
Analog Signals
Pin Name
PLCC
TQFP
I/O
Description
L_LINE
30
21
I
Left Line Input. Line level input for the left channel.
R_LINE
27
18
I
Right Line Input. Line level input for the right channel.
L_MIC
29
20
I
Left Microphone Input. Microphone input for the left channel. This signal
can be either line level or ­20 dB from line level.
R_MIC
28
19
I
Right Microphone Input. Microphone input for the right channel. This
signal can be either line level or ­20 dB from line level.
L_AUX1
39
30
I
Left Auxiliary #1 Line Input
R_AUX1
42
33
I
Right Auxiliary #1 Line Input
L_AUX2
38
29
I
Left Auxiliary #2 Line Input
R_AUX2
43
34
I
Right Auxiliary #2 Line Input
L_OUT
40
31
O
Left Line Level Output
R_OUT
41
32
O
Right Line Level Output
Miscellaneous
Pin Name
PLCC
TQFP
I/O
Description
XTAL1I
17
8
I
24.576 MHz Crystal #1 Input
XTAL1O
18
9
O
24.576 MHz Crystal #1 Output
XTAL2I
21
12
I
16.9344 MHz Crystal #2 Input
XTAL2O
22
13
O
16.9344 MHz Crystal #2 Output
PWRDWN
23
14
I
Power-Down Signal. Active LO control places AD1848K in its lowest
power consumption mode. All sections of the AD1848K, including the
digital interface, are shut down and consume minimal power.
INT
57
44
O
Host Interrupt Pin. This signal is used to notify the host that the DMA
Current Count Register has underflowed.
XCTL1:O
56 & 58
43 & 45
O
External Control. These signals reflect the current status of register bits
inside the AD1848K. They can be used for signaling or to control external
logic.
V
REF
32
23
O
Voltage Reference. Nominal 2.25 volt reference available for dc-coupling
and level-shifting. V
REF
should not be used where it will sink or source
current.
V
REF
_F
33
24
I
Voltage Reference Filter. Voltage reference filter point for external
bypassing only.
L_FILT
31
22
I
Left Channel Filter Input. This pin requires a 1.0
µ
F capacitor to analog
ground for proper operation.
R_FILT
26
17
I
Right Channel Filter Input. This pin requires a 1.0
µ
F capacitor to analog
ground for proper operation.
N/C
46­52, 55
37­39, 42
No Connect. Do not connect.
Power Supplies
Pin Name
PLCC
TQFP
I/O
Description
V
CC
35 & 36
26 & 27
I
Analog Supply Voltage (+5 V)
GNDA
34 & 37
25 & 28
I
Analog Ground
V
DD
1, 7, 15, 19,
6, 10, 15, 36,
I
Digital Supply Voltage (+5 V)
24, 45, 54
41, 56
GNDD
2, 8, 16, 20,
7, 11, 16, 35,
I
Digital Ground
25, 44, 53, 64
40, 51, 63
AD1848K
REV. 0
­9­
(Continued from page 1)
analog signals: line, microphone ("mic"), auxiliary ("aux") #1,
and post-mixed DAC output. The microphone inputs can pass
through optional 20 dB gain blocks. A software-controlled pro-
grammable gain stage allows independent gain for each channel
going into the ADC. The ADCs' output can be digitally mixed
with the DACs' input.
CS
A1
A0
WR
RD
DATA7:0
DBDIR
DBEN
PDRQ
CDRQ
PDAK
CDAK
INT
8
7
4
2
4
5
DIR
G
AEN
SA19:2
SA1
SA0
IOWC
IORC
DATA7:0
ADDRESS
DECODE
DRQ<X>
DRQ<Y>
DAK<X>
DAK<Y>
IRQ<Z>
A
B
AD1848K
ISA BUS
8
18
Figure 1. Interface to ISA Bus
The pair of 16-bit outputs from the ADCs is available over a
byte-wide bidirectional interface that also supports 16-bit digital
input to the DACs and control information. The AD1848K can
accept and generate 16-bit twos-complement PCM linear digital
data, 8-bit unsigned magnitude PCM linear data, and 8-bit
µ
-law or A-law companded digital data.
The
DACs are preceded by a digital interpolation filter. An
attenuator provides independent user volume control over each
DAC channel. Nyquist images and shaped quantization noise
are removed from the DACs' analog stereo output by on-chip
switched-capacitor and continuous-time filters. Two stereo pairs
of auxiliary line-level inputs can also be mixed in the analog do-
main with the DAC output.
AUDIO FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
This section overviews the functionality of the AD1848K and is
intended as a general introduction to the capabilities of the de-
vice. As much as possible, detailed reference information has
been placed in "Control Registers" and other sections. The user
is not expected to refer repeatedly to this section.
Analog Inputs
The AD1848K SoundPort Stereo Codec accepts stereo
line-level and mic-level inputs. LINE, MIC, and AUX1 inputs
and post-mixed DAC output analog stereo signals are multi-
plexed to the internal programmable gain amplifier stage
(PGA). Each channel of the mic inputs can be amplified by
+20 dB prior to the PGA to compensate for the voltage swing
difference between line levels and typical condenser micro-
phones. Alternatively, the mic inputs can bypass the +20 dB
fixed gain block and go straight to the input multiplexer.
The PGA following the input multiplexer allows independent se-
lectable gains for each channel from 0 to 22.5 dB in +1.5 dB
steps. The Codec can operate either in a global stereo mode or
in a global mono mode with left channel inputs appearing at
both channel outputs.
Analog Mixing
AUX1 and AUX2 analog stereo signals can be mixed in the ana-
log domain with the DAC output. Each channel of each auxil-
iary analog input can be independently gained/attenuated from
+12 dB to ­34.5 dB in ­1.5 dB steps or completely muted. The
post mixed DAC output is available on OUT externally and as
an input to the ADCs.
Even if the AD1848K is not playing back data from its DACs,
the analog mix function can still be active.
Analog-to-Digital Datapath
The AD1848K
ADCs incorporate a fourth order modulator.
A single pole of passive filtering is all that is required for
anti-aliasing the analog input due to the ADC's high 64 times
oversampling ratio. The ADCs include linear phase digital deci-
mation filters that low-pass filter the input to 0.45
×
F
S
("F
S
" is
the word rate or "sampling frequency.") ADC input overrange
conditions will cause register bits to be set that can be read.
Digital-to-Analog Datapath
The
DACs contain a programmable attenuator and a low-
pass digital interpolation filter. The anti-imaging interpolation
filter nominally oversamples by 64 and digitally filters the higher
frequency images. The interpolation ratio is increased at low
sample rates to ensure that the shaped quantization noise is
inaudible. This feature of the AD1848K represents an improve-
ment over the earlier AD1848J. The attenuator allows indepen-
dent control of each DAC channel from 0 dB to ­94.5 dB in
1.5 dB steps plus full mute. The DACs'
noise shapers also
oversample by 64 and convert the signal to a single bit stream.
The DAC outputs are then filtered in the analog domain by a
combination of switched-capacitor and continuous-time filters.
They remove the very high frequency components of the DAC
bitstream output. No external components are required. Phase
linearity at the analog output is achieved by internally compen-
sating for the group delay variation of the analog output filters.
Changes in DAC output attenuation take effect only on zero
crossings of the digital signal, thereby eliminating "zipper"
noise. Each channel has its own independent zero-crossing de-
tector and attenuator change control circuitry. A timer guarantees
that requested volume changes will occur even in the absence of
an input signal that changes sign. The time-out period is 8 milli-
seconds at a 48 kHz sampling rate and 48 milliseconds at an
8 kHz sampling rate. (Time out [ms]
384/F
S
[kHz].)
AD1848K
REV. 0
­10­
Digital Mixing
Stereo digital output from the ADCs can be mixed digitally with
the input to the DACs. Digital output from the ADCs going out
of the data port is unaffected by the digital mix. Along the digi-
tal mix datapath, the 16-bit linear output from the ADCs is
attenuated by an amount specified with control bits. Both chan-
nels of the monitor data are attenuated by the same amount.
(Note that internally the AD1848K always works with 16-bit
PCM linear data, digital mixing included; format conversions
take place at the input and output.)
Sixty-four steps of ­1.5 dB attenuation are supported to
­94.5 dB. The digital mix datapath can also be completely
muted, preventing any mixing of the analog input with the digi-
tal input. Note that the level of the mixed signal is also a func-
tion of the input PGA settings, since they affect the ADCs'
output.
The attenuated digital mix data is digitally summed with the
DAC input data prior to the DACs' datapath attenuators. The
digital sum of digital mix data and DAC input data is clipped at
plus or minus full scale and does not wrap around. Because both
stereo signals are mixed before the output attenuators, mix data
is attenuated a second time by the DACs' datapath attenuators.
In case the AD1848K is capturing data but ADC output data is
not removed in time ("ADC overrun"), then the last sample
captured before overrun will be used for the digital mix. In case
the AD1848K is playing back data but input digital DAC data
fails to arrive in time ("DAC underrun"), then a midscale zero
will be added to the digital mix data.
Analog Outputs
A stereo line level output is available at external pins. Each
channel of this output can be independently muted. When
muted, the outputs will settle to a dc value near V
REF
, the mid-
scale reference voltage.
Digital Data Types
The AD1848K supports four global data types: 16-bit twos-
complement linear PCM, eight-bit unsigned linear PCM,
companded
µ
-law, and 8-bit companded A-law, as specified by
control register bits. Data in all four formats is always trans-
ferred MSB first. Eight-bit data is always left justified in 16-bit
fields; said in other words, the MSBs of all data types are always
aligned; in yet other words, full-scale representations in all four
formats correspond to equivalent full-scale signals. The eight
least significant bit positions of 8-bit data in 16-bit fields are
ignored on input and zeroed on output.
The 16-bit PCM data format is capable of representing 96 dB of
dynamic range. Eight-bit PCM can represent 48 dB of dynamic
range. Companded
µ
-law and A-law data formats use nonlinear
coding with less precision for large amplitude signals. The loss
of precision is compensated for by an increase in dynamic range
to 64 dB and 72 dB, respectively.
On input, 8-bit companded data is expanded to an internal lin-
ear representation, according to whether
µ
-law or A-law was
specified in the Codec's internal registers. Note that when
µ
-law
compressed data is expanded to a linear format, it requires 14
bits. A-law data expanded requires 13 bits.
3/2
2/1
15
0
15
0
MSB
MSB
0 0 0 / 0 0
15
0
MSB
DAC INPUT
EXPANSION
COMPRESSED
INPUT DATA
3/2
2/1
LSB
LSB
8 7
LSB
Figure 2. A-Law or
µ
-Law Expansion
When 8-bit companding is specified, the ADCs' linear output is
compressed to the format specified.
LSB
3/2
2/1
15
0
15
0
MSB
MSB
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
15
0
MSB
ADC OUTPUT
TRUNCATION
COMPRESSION
LSB
8 7
LSB
Figure 3. A-Law or
µ
-Law Compression
Note that all format conversions take place at input or output.
Internally, the AD1848K always uses 16-bit linear PCM repre-
sentations to maintain maximum precision.
Power Supplies and Voltage Reference
The AD1848K operates from +5 V power supplies. Indepen-
dent analog and digital supplies are recommended for optimal
performance though excellent results can be obtained in single
supply systems. A voltage reference is included on the Codec
and its 2.25 V buffered output is available on an external pin
(V
REF
). The reference output can be used for biasing op amps
used in dc coupling. The internal reference must be externally
bypassed to analog ground at the V
REF
_F pin.
Clocks and Sample Rates
The AD1848K operates from external crystals. Two crystal in-
puts are provided to generate a wide range of sample rates. The
oscillators for these crystals are on the AD1848K, as is a multi-
plexer for selecting between them. They can be overdriven with
external clocks by the user, if so desired. The recommended
crystal frequencies are 16.9344 MHz and 24.576 MHz. From
them the following sample rates are divided down: 5.5125,
6.615, 8, 9.6, 11.025, 16, 18.9, 22.05, 27.42857, 32, 33.075,
37.8, 44.1, 48 kHz.
AD1848K
REV. 0
­11­
CONTROL REGISTERS
Control Register Architecture
The AD1848K SoundPort Stereo Codec accepts both data and
control information through its byte-wide parallel port. Indirect
addressing minimizes the number of external pins required to
access all 21 of its byte-wide internal registers. Only two
external address pins, ADR1:0, are required to accomplish all
data and control transfers. These pins select one of five direct
registers. (ADR1:0 = 3 addresses two registers, depending on
whether the transfer is a playback or a capture.)
ADR1:0
Register Name
0
Index Address Register
1
Indexed Data Register
2
Status Register
3
PIO Data Registers
Figure 4. AD1848K Direct Register Map
A write to or a read from the Indexed Data Register will access
the indirect register which is indexed by the value most recently
written to the Index Address Register. The Status Register and
the PIO Data Register are always accessible directly, without in-
dexing. The 16 indirect registers are indexed in Figure 5.
Index
Register Name
0
Left Input Control
1
Right Input Control
2
Left Aux #1 Input Control
3
Right Aux #1 Input Control
4
Left Aux #2 Input Control
5
Right Aux #2 Input Control
6
Left Output Control
7
Right Output Control
8
Clock and Data Format
9
Interface Configuration
10
Pin Control
11
Test and Initialization
12
Miscellaneous Information
13
Digital Mix
14
Upper Base Count
15
Lower Base Count
Figure 5. AD1848K Indirect Register Map
A detailed map of all direct and indirect register contents is
summarized for reference as follows:
Direct Registers:
ADR1:0
Data 7
Data 6
Data 5
Data 4
Data 3
Data 2
Data 1
Data 0
0
INIT
MCE
TRD
res
IXA3
IXA2
IXA1
IXA0
1
IXD7
IXD6
IXD5
IXD4
IXD3
IXD2
IXD1
IXD0
2
CU/L
CL/R
CRDY
SOUR
PU/L
PL/R
PRDY
INT
3
CD7
CD6
CD5
CD4
CD3
CD2
CD1
CD0
3
PD7
PD6
PD5
PD4
PD3
PD2
PD1
PD0
Indirect Registers:
IXA3:0
Data 7
Data 6
Data 5
Data 4
Data 3
Data 2
Data 1
Data 0
0
LSS1
LSS0
LMGE
res
LIG3
LIG2
LIG1
LIG0
1
RSS1
RSS0
RMGE
res
RIG3
RIG2
RIG1
RIG0
2
LMX1
res
res
LX1A4
LX1A3
LX1A2
LX1A1
LX1A0
3
RMX1
res
res
RX1A4
RX1A3
RX1A2
RX1A1
RX1A0
4
LMX2
res
res
LX2A4
LX2A3
LX2A2
LX2A1
LX2A0
5
RMX2
res
res
RX2A4
RX2A3
RX2A2
RX2A1
RX2A0
6
LDM
res
LDA5
LDA4
LDA3
LDA2
LDA1
LDA0
7
RDM
res
RDA5
RDA4
RDA3
RDA2
RDA1
RDA0
8
res
FMT
L/C
S/M
CFS2
CFS1
CFS0
CSS
9
CPIO
PPIO
res
res
ACAL
SDC
CEN
PEN
1 0
XCTL1
XCTL0
res
res
res
res
IEN
res
1 1
COR
PUR
ACI
DRS
ORR1
ORR0
ORL1
ORL0
1 2
res
res
res
res
ID3
ID2
ID1
ID0
1 3
DMA5
DMA4
DMA3
DMA2
DMA1
DMA0
res
DME
1 4
UB7
UB6
UB5
UB4
UB3
UB2
UB1
UB0
1 5
LB7
LB6
LB5
LB4
LB3
LB2
LB1
LB0
Figure 6. AD1848K Register Summary
Note that the only sticky bit in any of the AD1848K control registers is the interrupt (INT) bit. All other bits change with every
sample period.
AD1848K
REV. 0
­12­
Direct Control Register Definitions
Index Register (ADR1:0 = 0)
ADR1:0
Data 7
Data 6
Data 5
Data 4
Data 3
Data 2
Data 1
Data 0
0
INIT
MCE
TRD
res
IXA3
IXA2
IXA1
IXA0
IXA3:0
Index Address. These bits define the address of the AD1848K register accessed by the Indexed Data Register. These bits
are read/write.
res
Reserved for future expansion. Always write a zero to this bit.
TRD
Transfer Request Disable. This bit, when set, causes all data transfers to cease when the Interrupt Status (INT) bit of
the Status Register is set.
0
Transfers Enabled During Interrupt. PDRQ and CDRQ pin outputs are generated uninhibited by interrupts.
DMA Current Counter Register decrements with every sample period when either PEN or CEN are enabled.
1
Transfers Disabled By Interrupt. PDRQ and CDRQ pin outputs are generated only if INT bit is 0 (when either
PEN or CEN, respectively, are enabled). Any pending playback or capture requests are allowed to complete at the
time when TRD is set. After pending requests complete, midscale inputs will be internally generated for the
DACs, and the ADC output buffer will contain the last valid output. Clearing the sticky INT bit (or the TRD bit)
will cause the resumption of playback and/or capture requests (presuming PEN and/or CEN are enabled). The
DMA Current Counter Register will not decrement while both the TRD bit is set and the INT bit is a one.
MCE
Mode Change Enable. This bit must be set whenever the current functional mode of the AD1848K is changed. Specifi-
cally, the Clock and Data Format and Interface Configuration registers cannot be changed unless this bit is set. The
exceptions are CEN and PEN in the Interface Configuration which can be changed "on-the-fly." MCE should be
cleared at the completion of the desired register changes. The DAC outputs are automatically muted when the MCE bit
is set. After MCE is cleared, the DAC outputs will be restored to the state specified by the LDM and RDM mute bits.
Both ADCs and DACs are automatically muted for approximately 128 sample cycles after exiting the MCE state to al-
low the reference and all filters to settle. The ADCs will produce midscale values; the DACs' analog output will be
muted. All converters are internally operating during these
128 sample cycles, and the AD1848K will expect playback
data and will generate (midscale capture data. Note that the autocalibrate-in-process (ACI) bit will be set on exit from
the MCE state regardless of whether or not ACAL was set. ACI will remain HI for these
128 sample cycles; system
software should poll this bit rather than count cycles.
Special sequences must be followed if autocalibrate (ACAL) is set or sample rates are changed (CFS2:0 and or CSS)
during mode change enable. See the "Autocalibration" and "Changing Sample Rates" sections below.
INIT
AD1848K Initialization. This bit is set when the AD1848K is in a state which cannot respond to parallel bus cycles. This
bit is read only.
Immediately after reset and once the AD1848K has left the INIT state, the initial value of this register will be "0100 0000 (40h)."
During AD1848K initialization, this register cannot be written and is always read "1000 0000 (80h)."
Indexed Data Register (ADR1:0 = 1)
ADR1:0
Data 7
Data 6
Data 5
Data 4
Data 3
Data 2
Data 1
Data 0
1
IXD7
IXD6
IXD5
IXD4
IXD3
IXD2
IXD1
IXD0
IXD7:0
Indexed Register Data. These bits contain the contents of the AD1848K register referenced by the Indexed
Data Register.
During AD1848K initialization. this register cannot be written and is always read as "1000 0000 (80h)."
AD1848K
REV. 0
­13­
Status Register (ADR1:0 = 2)
ADR1:0
Data 7
Data 6
Data 5
Data 4
Data 3
Data 2
Data 1
Data 0
2
CU/L
CL/R
CRDY
SOUR
PU/L
PL/R
PRDY
INT
INT
Interrupt Status. This sticky bit (the only one) indicates the status of the interrupt logic of the AD1848K. This bit is
cleared by any host write of any value to this register. The IEN bit of the Pin Control Register determines whether the
state of this bit is reflected on the INT pin of the AD1848K. The only interrupt condition supported by the AD1848K is
generated by the underflow of the DMA Current Count Register.
0
Interrupt pin inactive
1
Interrupt pin active
PRDY
Playback Data Register Ready. The PIO Playback Data Register is ready for more data. This bit should only be used
when direct programmed I/O data transfers are desired. This bit is read only.
0
DAC data is still valid. Do not overwrite.
1
DAC data is stale. Ready for next host data write value.
PL/R
Playback Left/Right Sample. This bit indicates whether the PIO playback data needed is for the right channel DAC or
left channel DAC. This bit is read only.
0
Right channel needed
1
Left channel or mono
PU/L
Playback Upper/Lower Byte. This bit indicates whether the PIO playback data needed is for the upper or lower byte of
the channel. This bit is read only.
0
Lower byte needed
1
Upper byte needed or any 8-bit mode
SOUR
Sample Over/Underrun. This bit indicates that the most recent sample was not serviced in time and therefore either a
capture overrun (COR) or playback underrun (PUR) has occurred. The bit indicates an overrun for ADC capture and
an underrun for DAC playback. If both capture and playback are enabled, the source which set this bit can be deter-
mined by reading COR and PUR. This bit changes on a sample-by-sample basis. This bit is read only.
CRDY
Capture Data Ready. The PIO Capture Data Register contains data ready for reading by the host. This bit should only
be used when direct programmed I/O data transfers are desired. This bit is read only.
0
ADC data is stale. Do not reread the information.
1
ADC data is fresh. Ready for next host data read.
CL/R
Capture Left/Right Sample. This bit indicates whether the PIO capture data waiting is for the right channel ADC or left
channel ADC. This bit is read only.
0
Right channel
1
Left channel or mono
CU/L
Capture Upper/Lower Byte. This bit indicates whether the PIO capture data ready is for the upper or lower byte of the
channel. This bit is read only.
0
Lower byte ready
1
Upper byte ready or any 8-bit mode
The PRDY, CRDY, and INT bits of this status register can change asynchronously to host accesses. The host may access this regis-
ter while the bits are transitioning. The host read may return a zero value just as these bits are changing, for example. A one value
would not be read until the next host access.
This registers's initial state after reset is "1100 1100."
AD1848K
REV. 0
­14­
PIO Data Registers (ADRI :0 = 3)
ADR1:0
Data 7
Data 6
Data 5
Data 4
Data 3
Data 2
Data 1
Data 0
3
CD7
CD6
CD5
CD4
CD3
CD2
CD1
CD0
3
PD7
PD6
PD5
PD4
PD3
PD2
PD1
PD0
The PIO Data Registers are two registers mapped to the same address. Writes send data to the PIO Playback Data Register (PD7:0).
Reads will receive data from the PIO Capture Data Register (CD7:0).
During AD1848K initialization, the PIO Playback Data Register cannot be written and the Capture Data Register is always read
"1000 0000 (80h)."
CD7:0
PIO Capture Data Register. This is the control register where capture data is read during programmed I/O data transfers.
The reading of this register will increment the state machine so that the following read will be from the next appropriate
byte in the sample. The exact byte which is next to be read can be determined by reading the Status Register. Once all
relevant bytes have been read, the state machine will stay pointed to the last byte of the sample until a new sample is re-
ceived from the ADCs. Once this has occurred, the state machine and status register will point to the first byte of the
sample. Until a new sample is received, reads from this register will return the most significant byte of the sample.
PD7:0
PIO Playback Data Register. This is the control register where playback data is written during programmed I/O data
transfers.
Writing data to this register will increment the playback byte tracking state machine so that the following write will be
to the correct byte of the sample. Once all bytes of a sample have been written, subsequent byte writes to this port are
ignored. The state machine is reset when the current sample is sent to the DACs.
Indirect Control Register Definitions
The following control registers are accessed by writing index values to IXA3:0 in the Index Address Register (ADR1:0 = 0) followed
by a read/write to the Indexed Data Register (ADR1:0 = 1).
Left Input Control (IXA3:0 = 0)
IXA3:0
Data 7
Data 6
Data 5
Data 4
Data 3
Data 2
Data 1
Data 0
0
LSS1
LSS0
LMGE
res
LIG3
LIG2
LIG1
LIG0
LIG3:0
Left Input Gain Select. The least significant bit of this gain select represents +1.5 dB. Maximum gain is +22.5 dB.
res
Reserved for future expansion. Always write a zero to this bit.
LMGE
Left Input Microphone Gain Enable. Setting this bit will enable the +20 dB gain of the left mic input signal.
LSS1:0
Left Input Source Select. These bits select the input source for the left gain stage preceding the left ADC.
0
Left Line Source Selected
1
Left Auxiliary 1 Source Selected
2
Left Microphone Source Selected
3
Left Line Post-Mixed DAC Output Source Selected
This register's initial state after reset is "0000 0000."
AD1848K
REV. 0
­15­
Right Input Control (IXA3:0 = 1)
IXA3:0
Data 7
Data 6
Data 5
Data 4
Data 3
Data 2
Data 1
Data 0
1
RSS1
RSS0
RMGE
res
RIG3
RIG2
RIG1
RIG0
RIG3:0
Right Input Gain Select. The least significant bit of this gain select represents +1.5 dB. Maximum gain is +22.5 dB.
res
Reserved for future expansion. Always write a zero to this bit.
RMGE
Right Input Mic Gain Enable. Setting this bit will enable the +20 dB gain of the right mic input signal.
RSS1:0
Right Input Source Select. These bits select the input source for the right channel gain stage preceding the right ADC.
0
Right Line Source Selected
1
Right Auxiliary 1 Source Selected
2
Right Microphone Source Selected
3
Right Post-Mixed DAC Output Source Selected
This register's initial state after reset is "0000 0000."
Left Auxiliary #1 Input Control (IXA3:0 = 2)
IXA3:0
Data 7
Data 6
Data 5
Data 4
Data 3
Data 2
Data 1
Data 0
2
LMX1
res
res
LX1A4
LX1A3
LX1A2
LX1A1
LX1A0
LX1A4:0
Left Auxiliary Input #1 Attenuate Select. The least significant bit of this gain/attenuate select represents ­1.5 dB.
LX1X4:0 = 0 produces a +12 dB gain. LX1A4:0 = "01000" (8 decimal) produces 0 dB gain. Maximum attenuation is
­34.5 dB.
res
Reserved for future expansion. Always write zeros to these bits.
LMX1
Left Auxiliary #1 Mute. This bit, when set, will mute the left channel of the Auxiliary #1 input source. This bit powers
up set.
This register's initial state after reset is "1000 0000 (80h)."
Right Auxiliary #1 Input Control (IXA3:0 = 3)
IXA3:0
Data 7
Data 6
Data 5
Data 4
Data 3
Data 2
Data 1
Data 0
3
RMX1
res
res
RX1A4
RX1A3
RX1A2
RX1A1
RX1A0
RX1A4:0
Right Auxiliary Input #1 Attenuate Select. The least significant bit of this gain/attenuate select represents ­1.5 dB.
RX1A4:0 = 0 produces a +12 dB gain. RX1A4:0 = "01000" (8 decimal) produces 0 dB gain. Maximum attenuation is
­34.5 dB.
res
Reserved for future expansion. Always write zeros to these bits.
RMX1
Right Auxiliary #1 Mute. This bit, when set, will mute the right channel of the Auxiliary #1 input source. This bit
powers up set.
This register's initial state after reset is "1000 0000 (80h)."
AD1848K
REV. 0
­16­
Left Auxiliary #2 Input Control (IXA3:0 = 4)
IXA3:0
Data 7
Data 6
Data 5
Data 4
Data 3
Data 2
Data 1
Data 0
4
LMX2
res
res
LX2A4
LX2A3
LX2A2
LX2A1
LX2A0
LX2A4:0
Left Auxiliary Input #2 Attenuate Select. The least significant bit of this gain/attenuate select represents ­1.5 dB.
LX2A4:0 = 0 produces a +12 dB gain. LX2A4:0 = "01000" (8 decimal) produces 0 dB gain.
Maximum attenuation is ­34.5 dB.
res
Reserved for future expansion. Always write zeros to these bits.
LMX2
Left Auxiliary #2 Mute. This bit, when set to 1, will mute the left channel of the Auxiliary #2 input source.
This bit powers up set.
This register's initial state after reset is "1000 0000 (80h)."
Right Auxiliary #2 Input Control (IXA3:0 = 5)
IXA3:0
Data 7
Data 6
Data 5
Data 4
Data 3
Data 2
Data 1
Data 0
5
RMX2
res
res
RX2A4
RX2A3
RX2A2
RX2A1
RX2A0
RX2A4:0
Right Auxiliary Input #1 Attenuate Select. The least significant bit of this gain/attenuate select represents ­1.5 dB.
RX2A4:0 = 0 produces a +12 dB gain. RX2A4:0 = "01000" (8 decimal) produces 0 dB gain.
Maximum attenuation is ­34.5 dB.
res
Reserved for future expansion. Always write zeros to these bits.
RMX2
Right Auxiliary #2 Mute. This bit, when set, will mute the right channel of the Auxiliary #2 input source.
This bit powers up set.
This register's initial state after reset is "1000 0000 (80h)."
Left DAC Control (IXA3:0 = 6)
IXA3:0
Data 7
Data 6
Data 5
Data 4
Data 3
Data 2
Data 1
Data 0
6
LDM
res
LDA5
LDA4
LDA3
LDA2
LDA1
LDA0
LDA5:0
Left DAC Attenuate Select. The least significant bit of this attenuate select represents ­1.5 dB. LDA5:0 = 0 produces a
0 dB attenuation. Maximum attenuation is ­94.5 dB.
res
Reserved for future expansion. Always write a zero to this bit.
LDM
Left DAC Mute. This bit, when set to 1, will mute the left DAC output. Auxiliary inputs are muted independently with
the Left Auxiliary Input Control Registers. This bit powers up set.
This register's initial state after reset is "1x00 0000."
Right DAC Control (IXA3:0 = 7)
IXA3:0
Data 7
Data 6
Data 5
Data 4
Data 3
Data 2
Data 1
Data 0
7
RDM
res
RDA5
RDA4
RDA3
RDA2
RDA1
RDA0
RDA5:0
Right DAC Attenuate Select. The least significant bit of this attenuate select represents ­1.5 dB. RDA5:0 = 0 produces
0 dB attenuation. Maximum attenuation is ­94.5 dB.
res
Reserved for future expansion. Always write a zero to this bit.
RDM
Right DAC Mute. This bit, when set to 1, will mute the right DAC output. Auxiliary inputs are muted independently
with the Right Auxiliary Input Control Registers. This bit powers up set.
This register's initial state after reset is "1x00 0000."
AD1848K
REV. 0
­17­
Clock and Data Format Register (IXA3:0 = 8)
IXA3:0
Data 7
Data 6
Data 5
Data 4
Data 3
Data 2
Data 1
Data 0
8
res
FMT
L/C
S/M
CFS2
CFS1
CFS0
CSS
The contents of the Clock and Data Format Register cannot be changed except when the AD1848K is in Mode Change Enable (MCE) state.
Write attempts to this register when the AD1848K is not in the MCE state will not be successful.
CSS
Clock Source Select. This bit selects the crystal clock source which will be used for the audio sample rate.
0
XTAL1 (24.576 MHz)
1
XTAL2 (16.9344 MHz)
CFS2:0
Clock Frequency Divide Select. These bits select the audio sample rate frequency. The actual audio sample rate depends
on which crystal clock source is selected and the frequency of that source.
Divide
XTAL1
XTAL2
CFS
Factor
24.576 MHz
16.9344 MHz
0
3072
8.0 kHz
5.5125 kHz
1
1536
16.0 kHz
11.025 kHz
2
896
27.42857 kHz
18.9 kHz
3
768
32.0 kHz
22.05 kHz
4
448
Not Supported
37.8 kHz
5
384
Not Supported
44.1 kHz
6
512
48.0 kHz
33.075 kHz
7
2560
9.6 kHz
6.615 kHz
Note that the AD1848K's internal oscillators can be overdriven by external clock sources at the crystal input pins. If an external
clock source is applied, it will be divided down by the selected Divide Factor. It need not be at the recommended crystal frequencies.
S/M
Stereo/Mono Select. This bit determines how the audio data streams are formatted. Selecting stereo will result with alter-
nating samples representing left and right audio channels. Mono playback plays the same audio sample on both chan-
nels. Mono capture only captures data from the left audio channel.
0
Mono
1
Stereo
L/C
Linear/Companded Select. This bit selects between a linear digital representation of the audio signal or a nonlinear,
companded format for all input and output data. The type of linear PCM or the type of companded format is defined by
the FMT bits.
0
Linear PCM
1
Companded
FMT
Format Select. This bit defines the format for all digital audio input and outputs based on the state of the L/C bit.
Linear PCM (L/C = 0)
Companded (L/C = 1)
0
8-bit Unsigned PCM
8-bit
µ
-law Companded
1
16-bit Twos-Complement PCM
8-bit A-law Companded
res
Reserved for future expansion. Always write a zero to this bit.
This register's initial state after reset is "x000 0000."
AD1848K
REV. 0
­18­
Interface Configuration Register (IXA3:0 = 9)
IXA3:0
Data 7
Data 6
Data 5
Data 4
Data 3
Data 2
Data 1
Data 0
9
CPIO
PPIO
res
res
ACAL
SDC
CEN
PEN
The contents of the Interface Configuration Register cannot be changed except when the AD1848K is in Mode Change Enable (MCE) state.
Write attempts to this register when the AD1848K is not in the MCE state will not be successful. PEN and CEN are exceptions; these bits may
always be written.
PEN
Playback Enable. This bit will enable the playback of data in the format selected. The AD1848K will generate PDRQ
and respond to PDAK signals when this bit is enabled and PPIO = 0. If PPIO = 1, this bit enables Programmed I/O
(PIO) playback mode. PEN may be set and reset without setting the MCE bit.
0
Playback disabled (PDRQ and PIO Playback Data Register inactive)
1
Playback enabled
CEN
Capture Enable. This bit will enable the capture of data in the format selected. The AD1848K will generate CDRQ and
respond to CDAK signals when this bit is enabled and CPIO = 0. If CPIO = 1, this bit enables PIO capture mode. CEN
may be set and reset without setting the MCE bit.
0
Capture disabled (CDRQ and PIO Capture Data Register inactive)
1
Capture enabled
SDC
Single DMA Channel. This bit will force both capture and playback DMA requests to occur on the Playback DMA
channel. The Capture DMA CDRQ pin will be LO. This bit will allow the AD1848K to be used with only one DMA
channel. Simultaneous capture and playback cannot occur in this mode. Should both capture and playback be enabled
(CEN = PEN = 1) in the mode, only playback will occur. See "Data and Control Transfers" for further explanation.
0
Dual DMA channel mode
1
Single DMA channel mode
ACAL
Autocalibrate Enable. This bit determines whether the AD1848K performs an autocalibrate whenever the PWRDWN
pin is deasserted or from the Mode Change Enable (MCE) bit being reset. ACAL is normally set. See "Autocalibration"
below for a description of a complete autocalibration sequence.
0
No autocalibration
1
Autocalibration after power down/reset or mode change
res
Reserved for future expansion. Always write zeros to these bits.
PPIO
Playback PIO Enable. This bit determines whether the playback data is transferred via DMA or PIO.
0
DMA transfers only
1
PIO transfers only
CPIO
Capture PIO Enable. This bit determines whether the capture data is transferred via DMA or PIO.
0
DMA transfers only
1
PIO transfers only
This register's initial state after reset is "00xx 1000 (x8h)."
Pin Control Register (IXA3:0 = 10)
IXA3:0
Data 7
Data 6
Data 5
Data 4
Data 3
Data 2
Data 1
Data 0
1 0
XCTL1
XCTL0
res
res
res
res
IEN
res
res
Reserved for future expansion. Always write zeros to these bits.
IEN
Interrupt Enable. This bit enables the interrupt pin. The Interrupt Pin will go active HI when the number of samples
programmed in the Base Count Register is reached.
0
Interrupt disabled
1
Interrupt enabled
XCTL1:0
External Control. The state of these independent bits is reflected on the respective XCTL1:0 pins of the AD1848K.
0
TTL Logic LO on XCTL1:0 pins
1
TTL Logic HI on XCTL1:0 pins
This register's initial state after reset is "00xx xx0x."
AD1848K
REV. 0
­19­
Test and Initialization Register (IXA3:0 = 11)
IXA3:0
Data 7
Data 6
Data 5
Data 4
Data 3
Data 2
Data 1
Data 0
1 1
COR
PUR
ACI
DRS
ORR1
ORR0
ORL1
ORL0
ORL1:0
Overrange Left Detect. These bits indicate the overrange on the left input channel. This bit changes on a sample-by
sample basis. This bit is read only.
0
Less than ­1 dB underrange
1
Between ­1 dB and 0 dB underrange
2
Between 0 dB and +1 dB overrange
3
Greater than +1 dB overrange
ORR1:0
Overrange Right Detect. These bits indicate the overrange on the right input channel. This bit changes on a sample-by
sample basis. This bit is read only.
0
Less than ­1 dB underrange
1
Between ­1 dB and 0 dB underrange
2
Between 0 dB and +1 dB overrange
3
Greater than +1 dB overrange
DRS
Data Request Status. This bit indicates the current status of the PDRQ and CDRQ pins of the AD1848K.
0
CDRQ and PDRQ are presently inactive (LO)
1
CDRQ or PDRQ are presently active (HI)
ACI
Autocalibrate-In-Progress. This bit indicates the state of autocalibration or a recent exit from Mode Change Enable
(MCE). This bit is read only.
0
Autocalibration is not in progress
1
Autocalibration is in progress or MCE was exited within approximately the last 128 sample periods
PUR
Playback Underrun. This bit is set when playback data has not arrived from the host in time to be played. As a result, a
midscale value will be sent to the DACs. This bit changes on a sample by sample basis.
COR
Capture Overrun. This bit is set when the capture data has not been read by the host before the next sample arrives. The
sample being read will not be overwritten by the new sample. The new sample will be ignored. This bit changes on a
sample by sample basis.
The occurrence of a PUR and/or COR is designated in the Status Register's Sample Overrun/Underrun (SOUR) bit. The SOUR bit
is the logical OR of the COR and PUR bits. This enables a polling host CPU to detect an overrun/underrun condition while checking
other status bits.
This register's initial state after reset is "0000 0000."
Miscellaneous Control Register (IXA3:0 = 12)
IXA3:0
Data 7
Data 6
Data 5
Data 4
Data 3
Data 2
Data 1
Data 0
1 2
res
res
res
res
ID3
ID2
ID1
ID0
res
Reserved for future expansion. The bits are read only. Do not write to these bits.
ID3:0
AD1848K Revision ID. These four bits define the revision level of the AD1848K. Revisions increment by one LSB. The
K-Grade revision is ID = "1010." These bits are read only.
This register's initial state after reset is "xxxx RRRR" where RRRR = Revision ID of the silicon in use.
AD1848K
REV. 0
­20­
Digital Mix Control Register (IXA3:0 = 13)
IXA3:0
Data 7
Data 6
Data 5
Data 4
Data 3
Data 2
Data 1
Data 0
1 3
DMA5
DMA4
DMA3
DMA2
DMA1
DMA0
res
DME
DME
Digital Mix Enable. This bit will enable the digital mix of the ADCs' output with the DACs' input. When enabled, the
data from the ADCs are digitally mixed with other data being delivered to the DACs (regardless of whether or not play-
back [PEN] is enabled, i.e., set). If capture is enabled (CEN set) and there is a capture overrun (COR), then the last
sample captured before overrun will be used for the digital mix. If playback is enabled (PEN set) and there is a playback
underrun (PUR), then a midscale zero will be added to the digital mix data.
0
Digital mix disabled (muted)
1
Digital mix enabled
res
Reserved for future expansion. Always write a zero to this bit.
DMA5:0
Digital Mix Attenuation. These bits determine the attenuation of the ADC data in mixing with the DAC input. Each
attenuate step is ­1.5 dB ranging to ­94.5 dB.
This register's initial state after reset is "0000 00x0."
DMA Base Count Registers (IXA3:0 = 14 & 15)
The DMA Base Count Registers in the AD1848K simplify integration of the AD1848K in ISA systems. The ISA DMA controller re-
quires an external count mechanism to notify the host CPU via interrupt of a full DMA buffer. The programmable DMA Base
Count Registers will allow such interrupts to occur.
The Base Count Registers contain the number of sample periods which will occur before an interrupt is generated on the interrupt
(INT) pin. To load, first write a value to the Lower Base Count Register. Writing a value to the Upper Base Register will cause both
Base Count Registers to load into the Current Count Register. Once AD1848K transfers are enabled, each sample period the Cur-
rent Count Register will decrement until zero count is reached. The next sample period after zero will generate the interrupt and re-
load the Current Count Register with the values in the Base Count Registers. The interrupt is cleared by a write to the Status
Register.
The Host Interrupt Pin (INT) will go HI during the sample period in which the Current Count Register underflows when Interrupt
Enable (IEN) is set. It will go LO when the Interrupt Status (INT) bit is cleared. Note that both the bit and the pin have the same
name (INT). The Current Count Register is decremented every sample period when either the PEN or CEN bit is enabled and also
either the Transfer Request Disable (TRD) bit or the Interrupt Status (INT) bit are zero. Note that the internal INT bit will become
one on counter underflow even if the external interrupt pin is not enabled, i.e., IEN is zero. The Current Count Register is
decremented in both PIO and DMA data transfer modes.
Upper Base Count Register (IXA3:0 = 14)
IXA3:0
Data 7
Data 6
Data 5
Data 4
Data 3
Data 2
Data 1
Data 0
1 4
UB7
UB6
UB5
UB4
UB3
UB2
UB1
UB0
UB7:0
Upper Base Count. This byte is the upper byte of the base count register containing the eight most significant bits of the
16-bit base register. Reads from this register return the same value which was written. The current count contained in
the counters can not be read.
This register's initial state after reset is "0000 0000."
Lower Upper Base Count Register (IXA3:0 = 15)
IXA3:0
Data 7
Data 6
Data 5
Data 4
Data 3
Data 2
Data 1
Data 0
1 5
LB7
LB6
LB5
LB4
LB3
LB2
LB1
LB0
LB7:0
Lower Base Count. This byte is the lower byte of the base count register containing the eight least significant bits of the
16-bit base register. Reads from this register return the same value which was written. The current count contained in
the counters cannot be read.
This register's initial state after reset is "0000 0000."
AD1848K
REV. 0
­21­
DATA AND CONTROL TRANSFERS
The AD1848K SoundPort Stereo Codec supports a DMA re-
quest/grant architecture for transferring data with the host com-
puter bus. One or two DMA channels can be supported.
Programmed I/O (PIO) mode is also supported for control reg-
ister accesses and for applications lacking DMA control. PIO
transfers can be made on one channel while the other is per-
forming DMA. Transfers to and from the AD1848K SoundPort
Codec are asynchronous relative to the internal data conversion
clock. Transfers are buffered, but the AD1848K supports no in-
ternal FIFOs. The host is responsible for providing playback
data before the next digital-to-analog conversion and removing
capture data before the next analog-to-digital conversion.
Data Ordering
The number of byte-wide transfers required depends on the
data format selected. The AD1848K is designed for "little
endian" formats in which the least significant byte (i.e., occupy-
ing the lowest memory address) gets transferred first. So 16-bit
data transfers require first transferring the least significant bits
7:0 and then transferring the most significant bits 15:8, where
bit 15 is the most significant bit in the word.
In addition, left channel data is always transferred before right
channel data with the AD1848K. The following figures should
make these requirements clear.
SAMPLE 6
MONO
MONO
MONO
MONO
SAMPLE 5
SAMPLE 4
SAMPLE 3
SAMPLE 2
SAMPLE 1
TIME
BYTE 1
BYTE 2
BYTE 3
BYTE 4
Figure 7. AD1848K 8-Bit Mono Data Stream Sequencing
SAMPLE 3
RIGHT
LEFT
RIGHT
LEFT
SAMPLE 3
SAMPLE 2
SAMPLE 2
SAMPLE 1
SAMPLE 1
TIME
BYTE 1
BYTE 2
BYTE 3
BYTE 4
Figure 8. AD1848K 8-Bit Stereo Data Stream Sequencing
TIME
MONO
MONO
SAMPLE 6
SAMPLE 5
SAMPLE 4
SAMPLE 3
SAMPLE 2
SAMPLE 1
BYTES 1 & 2
BYTES 3 & 4
Figure 9. AD1848K 16-Bit Mono Data Stream Sequencing
TIME
RIGHT
LEFT
SAMPLE 3
SAMPLE 3
SAMPLE 2
SAMPLE 2
SAMPLE 1
SAMPLE 1
BYTES 1 & 2
BYTES 3 & 4
Figure 10. AD1848K 16-Bit Stereo Data
Stream Sequencing
Control and Programmed I/O (PIO) Transfers
This simpler mode of transfers is used both for control register
accesses and programmed I/O. The 21 control and PIO data
registers cannot be accessed via DMA transfers. Playback PIO is
activated when both Playback Enable (PEN) is set and Playback
PIO (PPIO) is set. Capture PIO is activated when both Capture
Enable (CEN) is set and Capture PIO (CPIO) is set. See Fig-
ures 11 and 12 for the detailed timing of the control register/
PIO transfers. The RD and WR signals are used to define the
actual read and write cycles, respectively. The host holds CS
LO during these transfers. The DMA Capture Data Acknowl-
edge (CDAK) and Playback Data Acknowledge (PDAK) must
be held inactive, i.e., HI.
CDRQ /
PDRQ
OUTPUTS
CS INPUT
CDAK
INPUT
DATA7:0
OUTPUTS
RD INPUT
DBEN &
DBDIR
OUTPUTS
ADR1:0
INPUTS
t
DBDL
t
RDDV
t
ADSU
t
CSHD
t
CSSU
t
DHD1
t
ADHD
t
STW
t
SUDK2
t
SUDK1
Figure 11. AD1848K Control Register/PIO Read Cycle
CDRQ/
PDRQ
OUTPUTS
CS INPUT
PDAK
INPUT
DATA7:0
INPUTS
WR INPUT
DBEN
OUTPUT
ADR1:0
INPUTS
t
DBDL
t
ADSU
t
CSHD
t
DHD2
t
ADHD
t
SUDK2
DBDIR
OUTPUT
t
SUDK1
t
CSSU
t
STW
t
WDSU
HI
Figure 12. AD1848K Control Register/PIO Write Cycle
AD1848K
REV. 0
­22­
For read/capture cycles, the AD1848K will place data on the
DATA7:0 lines while the host is asserting the read strobe, RD,
by holding it LO. For write/playback, the host must place data
on the DATA7:0 pins while strobing the WR signal LO. The
AD1848K latches the write/playback data on the rising edge of
the WR strobe.
When using PIO data transfers, the Status Register must be
polled to determine when data should be transferred. Note that
the ADC capture data will be ready (CRDY HI) from the previ-
ous sample period shortly before the DAC playback data is
ready (PRDY HI) for the next sample period. The user should
not wait for both ADCs and DACs to become ready before initi-
ating data transfers. Instead, as soon as capture data is ready, it
should be read; as soon as the DACs are ready, playback data
should be written.
Values written to the XCTL1:0 bits in the Pin Control Register
(IXA3:0 = 10) will be reflected in the state of the XCTL1:0 ex-
ternal output pins. This feature allows a simple method for sig-
naling or software control of external logic. Changes in state of
the external XCTL pins will occur within one sample period.
Because their change is referenced to the internal sample clock,
no useful timing diagram can be constructed.
Direct Memory Access (DMA) Transfers
The second type of bus cycle supported by the AD1848K are
DMA transfers. Both dual channel and single channel DMA op-
erations are supported. To enable Playback DMA transfers,
playback enable (PEN) must be set and PPIO cleared. To en-
able Capture DMA transfers, capture enable (CEN) must be set
and CPIO cleared. During DMA transfers, the AD1848K as-
serts HI the Capture Data Request (CDRQ) or the Playback
Data Request (PDRQ) followed by the host's asserting LO the
DMA Capture Data Acknowledge (CDAK) or Playback Data
Acknowledge (PDAK), respectively. The host's asserted
Acknowledge signals cause the AD1848K to perform DMA
transfers. The input address lines, ADR1:0, are ignored. Data is
transferred between the proper internal sample registers.
The read strobe (RD) and write strobe (WR) delimit valid data
for DMA transfers. Chip select (CS) is a "don't care"; its state
is ignored by the AD1848K.
The AD1848K asserts the Data Request Signals, CDRQ and
PDRQ, at the rate of once per sample period, where PDRQ is
asserted near the beginning of an internal sample period and
CDRQ is asserted late in the same period to maximize the avail-
able processing time. Once asserted, these signals will remain
active HI until the corresponding DMA cycle occurs with the
host's Data Acknowledge signals. The Data Request signals will
be deasserted after the falling edge of the final RD or WD strobe
in the transfer of a sample, which typically consists of multiple
bytes. See "Data Ordering" above for a definition of "sample."
DMA transfers may be independently aborted by resetting the
Capture Enable (CEN) and/or Playback Enable (PEN) bits in
the Interface Configuration Register. The current capture
sample transfer will be completed if a capture DMA is termi-
nated. The current playback sample transfer must be completed
if a playback DMA is terminated. If CDRQ and/or PDRQ are
asserted HI while the host is resetting CEN and/or PEN, the re-
quest must be acknowledged. The host must assert CDAK and/
or PDAK LO and complete a final sample transfer.
Single-Channel DMA
Single-Channel DMA mode allows the AD1848K to be used in
systems with only a single DMA channel. It is enabled by setting
the SDC bit in the Interface Configuration Register. All cap-
tures and playbacks take place on the playback channel. Obvi-
ously, the AD1848K cannot perform a simultaneous capture
and playback in Single-Channel DMA mode.
Playback will occur in single-channel DMA mode exactly as it
does in Two-Channel mode. Capture, however, is diverted to
the playback channel which means that the capture data request
occurs on the PDRQ pin and the capture data acknowledge
must be received on the PDAK pin. The CDRQ pin will remain
inactive LO. Any inputs to CDAK will be ignored.
Playback and capture are distinguished in Single-Channel DMA
mode by the state of the playback enable (PEN) or capture en-
able (CEN) control bits. If both PEN and CEN are set in
Single-Channel DMA mode, playback will be presumed.
To avoid confusion of the origin of a request when switching be-
tween playback and capture in Single-Channel DMA mode,
both CEN and PEN should be disabled and all pending re-
quests serviced before enabling the alternative enable bit.
Switching between playback and capture in Single-Channel
DMA mode no longer requires changing the PPIO and CPIO
bits or passing through the Mode Change Enable state except
for initial setup. For setup, assign zeros to both PPIO and
CPIO. This configures both playback and capture for DMA.
Then, switching between playback and capture can be effected
entirely by setting and clearing the PEN and CEN control bits,
a technique which avoids having to enter the Mode Change
Enable state.
DMA Timing
Below, timing parameters are shown for 8-Bit Mono Sample
Read/Capture and Write/Playback DMA transfers in Figures 13
and 14. Note that in single-channel DMA mode, the Read/
Capture cycle timing shown in Figure 13 applies to the PDRQ
and PDAK signals, rather than the CDRQ and CDAK signals
as shown. The same timing parameters apply to multibyte trans-
fers. The relationship between timing signals is shown in Fig-
ures 15 and 16.
The Host Interrupt Pin (INT) will go HI during the sample
period in which the Current Count Register underflows. This
event is referenced to the internal sample period clock which is
not available externally.
AD1848K
REV. 0
­23­
PDRQ
OUTPUT
PDAK
INPUT
DATA7:0
INPUTS
WR INPUT
DBEN
OUTPUTS
t
DBDL
t
DKSU
t
DHD2
ISA BUS
BCLK
t
DKHDA
DBDIR
OUTPUT
HI
t
STW
t
DRHD
t
WDSU
Figure 14. AD1848K 8-Bit Mono DMA Write/Playback Cycle
CDRQ OUTPUT
CDAK INPUT
DATA7:0
OUTPUTS
RD INPUT
DBEN & DBDIR
OUTPUTS
t
DBDL
t
RDDV
t
DKSU
t
DHD1
ISA BUS
BCLK
t
DKHDB
t
STW
t
DRHD
Figure 13. AD1848K 8-Bit Mono DMA Read/Capture Cycle
CDRQ/
PDRQ
OUTPUTS
CDAK/
PDAK
INPUTS
DATA7:0
RD OR WR
INPUTS
ISA BUS
BCLK
LEFT/LOW
BYTE
RIGHT/HIGH
BYTE
t
BWDN
Figure 15. AD1848K 8-Bit Stereo or 16-Bit Mono DMA Cycle
CDRQ/ PDRQ
OUTPUTS
CDAK/ PDAK
INPUTS
DATA7:0
RD OR WR
INPUTS
ISA BUS
BCLK
LOW
BYTE
HIGH
BYTE
LOW
BYTE
HIGH
BYTE
LEFT SAMPLE
RIGHT SAMPLE
t
BWDN
Figure 16. AD1848K 16-Bit Stereo DMA Cycle
AD1848K
REV. 0
­24­
DMA Interrupt
Writing to the internal 16-bit Base Count Register sets up the
count value for the number of samples to be transferred. Note
that the number of bytes transferred for a given count will be a
function of the selected global data format. The internal Cur-
rent Count Register is updated with the current contents of the
Upper and Lower Base Count Registers when a write occurs to
the Upper Base Count Register.
The Current Count Register cannot be read by the host. Read-
ing the Base Count Registers will only read back the initializa-
tion values written to them.
The Current Count Register is decremented every sample
period when either the PEN or CEN bit is enabled and also either
the Transfer Request Disable (TRD) bit or the Interrupt Status
(INT) bit is zero. An interrupt event is generated after the Cur-
rent Count Register is zero and an additional playback sample is
transferred. The INT bit in the Status Register always reflects
the current internal interrupt state defined above. The external
INT pin will only go active HI if the Interrupt Enable (IEN) bit
in the Interface Configuration Register is set. If the IEN bit is
zero, the external INT pin will always stay LO, even though the
Status Register's INT bit may be set.
POWER UP AND RESET
The PWRDWN pin should be held in its active LO state when
power is first applied to the AD1848K. Analog Devices recom-
mends waiting one full second after deasserting PWRDWN be-
fore commencing audio activity with the AD1848K. This will
allow the analog outputs to fully settle to the V
REF
voltage level
prior to system autocalibration. At any point when powered, the
AD1848K can be put into a state for minimum power consump-
tion by asserting PWRDWN LO. All analog and digital sections
are shut down. The AD1848K's parallel interface does not func-
tion; all bidirectional signal lines are in high impedance three-
state.
Deasserting PWRDWN by bringing it HI begins the AD1848K's
initialization. While initializing, the AD1848K ignores all writes
and all reads will yield "1000 0000 (80h)." At the conclusion of
reset initialization, all registers will be set to their default values
as listed in "Control Registers" above. The conclusion of the
initialization period can be detected by polling the index register
for some value other than "1000 0000 (80h)."
It is imperative to autocalibrate on power up for proper opera-
tion. See next section.
AUTOCALIBRATION
The AD1848K can calibrate the ADCs and DACs for greater
accuracy by minimizing DC offsets. Autocalibration occurs
whenever the AD1848K returns from the Mode Change Enable
state and the ACAL bit in the Interface Configuration register
has been set. If the ACAL bit is not set, the RAM normally
containing ADC and DAC offset compensations will be saved,
retaining the offsets of the most recent autocalibration. There-
fore, it is imperative to autocalibrate on power up for proper
operation.
The completion of autocalibration can be determined by polling
the Autocalibrate-In-Progress (ACI) bit in the Test and Initial-
ization Register, which will be set during autocalibration. Trans-
fers enabled during autocalibration do not begin until the
completion of autocalibration.
The following summarizes the procedure for autocalibration:
·
Mute left and right DAC outputs, AUX1 and AUX2 inputs,
and digital mix. (It is unnecessary to mute the DAC outputs,
as this will happen automatically.)
·
Set the Mode Change Enable (MCE) bit.
·
Set the Autocalibration (ACAL) bit.
·
Clear the Mode Change Enable (MCE) bit.
·
The Autocalibrate-In-Progress (ACI) bit will transition from
LO to HI within five sample periods. It will remain HI for
approximately 384 sample periods. Poll the ACI bit until it
transitions from HI to LO.
·
Set to desired gain/attenuation values, and unmute DAC
outputs (if muted), AUX inputs, and digital mix.
During the autocalibration sequence, data output from the
ADCs is meaningless. Inputs to the DACs are ignored. Even if
the user specified the muting of all analog outputs, near the end
of the autocalibration sequence, dc analog outputs very close to
V
REF
will be produced at the line output.
CHANGING SAMPLE RATES
To change the selection of the current sample rate requires a
Mode Change Enable sequence since the bits which control that
selection are in the Clock and Data Format Register. The fact
that the clocks change requires a special sequence which is sum-
marized as follows:
·
If autocalibration will take place at the end of this sequence,
mute the AUX1 and AUX2 inputs and the digital mix.
·
Set the Mode Change Enable (MCE) bit.
·
In a single write cycle, change the Clock Frequency Divide
Select (CFS2:0) and/or the Clock Source Select (CSS).
·
The AD1848K now needs to resynchronize its internal
states to the new clock. Writes to the AD1848K will be
ignored. Reads will produce "1000 0000 (80h)" until the
resynchronization is complete. Poll the Index Register until
something other than this value is returned.
·
Clear the Mode Change Enable (MCE) bit.
·
If ACAL is set, follow the procedure described in "Auto-
calibration" above.
·
Poll the ACI hit until it transitions LO (approximately 128
sample cycles).
·
Set to desired gain/attenuation values, and unmute DAC
outputs (if muted).
AD1848K
REV. 0
­25­
APPLICATIONS CIRCUITS
The AD1848K Stereo Codec has been designed to require a
minimum of external circuitry. The recommended circuits are
shown in Figures 17 through 25. Analog Devices estimates that
the total cost of all the components shown in these figures, in-
cluding crystals but not including connectors, to be less than
$10 in the U.S.A. in 10,000 quantities.
See Figure 1 for an illustration of the connection between the
AD1848K SoundPort Codec and the Industry Standard Archi-
tecture (ISA) computer bus, also known as the "PC-AT bus."
Note that the 74_245 transceiver receives its enable and direc-
tion signals directly from the Codec. Analog Devices recom-
mends using the "slowest" 74_245 adequately fast to meet all
AD1848K and computer bus timing and drive requirements. So
doing will minimize switching transients of the 74_245. This in
turn will minimize the digital feedthrough effects of the trans-
ceiver when driving the AD1848K, which can cause the audio
noise floor to rise.
Industry-standard compact disc "line-levels" are 2 V rms cen-
tered around analog ground. (For other audio equipment, "line
level" is much more loosely defined.) The AD1848K SoundPort
is a +5 V only powered device. Line level voltage swings for the
AD1848K are defined to be 1 V rms for a sine wave ADC input
and 0.707 V rms for a sine wave DAC output. Thus, 2 V rms
input analog signals must be attenuated and either centered
around the reference voltage intermediate between 0 V and
+5 V or ac-coupled. The V
REF
pin will be at this intermediate
voltage, nominally 2.25 V. It has limited drive but can be used
as a dc bias to an op amp input. Note, however, that dc-coupled
inputs are not recommended, as they provide no performance
benefits with the AD1848K architecture. Furthermore, dc offset
differences between multiple dc-coupled inputs create the
potential for "clicks" when changing the input mux selection.
A circuit for 2 V rms line-level inputs and auxiliaries is shown in
Figure 17. Note that this is a divide-by-two resistive divider.
The input resistor and 560 pF capacitor provides the single-pole
of anti-alias filtering required for the ADCs. If line-level inputs
are already at the 1 V rms levels expected by the AD1848K, the
resistors in parallel with the 560 pF capacitors can be omitted.
5.1k
5.1k
560pF
L_LINE
L_AUX1
L_AUX2
0.33
µ
F
NPO
5.1k
5.1k
560pF
R_LINE
R_AUX1
R_AUX2
0.33
µ
F
NPO
Figure 17. AD1848K 2 V rms Line-Level Input Circuit
The AD1848K Codec contains an optional +20 dB gain block
to accommodate condenser microphones. Particular system re-
quirements will depend upon the characteristics of the intended
microphone. Figure 18 illustrates one example of how an elec-
tret condenser mike requiring phantom power could be con-
nected to the AD1848K. V
REF
is shown buffered by an op amp;
a transistor like a 2N4124 will also work fine for this purpose.
Note that if a battery-powered microphone is used, the buffer
and R
2
s are not needed. The values of R
1
, R
2
, and C should be
chosen in light of the mic characteristics and intended gain.
Typical values for these might be R
1
= 20 k
, R
2
= 2 k
, and
C = 220 pF.
5.1k
1
µ
F
1/2 SSM-2135
OR AD820
L_MIC
V
REF
LEFT ELECTRET
CONDENSER
MICROPHONE
INPUT
5.1k
C
1
µ
F
R_MIC
RIGHT ELECTRET
CONDENSER
MICROPHONE
INPUT
1/2 SSM-2135
OR AD820
1/2 SSM-2135
OR AD820
R
1
C
V
REF
R
1
R
2
R
2
0.33
µ
F
0.33
µ
F
Figure 18. AD1848K "Phantom-Powered" Microphone
Input Circuit
Figure 19 shows ac-coupled line outputs. The resistors are used
to center the output signals around analog ground. If
dc-coupling is desired, V
REF
could be used with op amps as
mentioned previously.
1
µ
F
47k
L_OUT
1
µ
F
47k
R_OUT
Figure 19. AD1848K Line Output Connections
A circuit for headphone drive is illustrated in Figure 20. Drive is
supplied by +5 V operational amplifiers. The circuit shown ac
couples the line output to the headphones.
HEADPHONE
LEFT
HEADPHONE
RIGHT
L_OUT
R_OUT
470
µ
F
20k
SSM-2135
V
REF
18k
18k
470
µ
F
20k
Figure 20. AD1848K Headphone Drive Connections
AD1848K
REV. 0
­26­
Figure 21 illustrates reference bypassing. V
REF
_F should only be
connected to its bypass capacitors.
10µF
10µF
V
REF
0.1µF
V
REF
F
_
Figure 21. AD1848K Voltage Reference Bypassing
Figure 22 illustrates signal-path filtering capacitors, L_FILT
and R_FILT. Note that AD1848Ks will perform satisfactorily
with 0.1
µ
F capacitors; increasing the value to 1.0
µ
F does im-
prove performance at very low frequencies, however.
R_FILT
1.0
µ
F
L_FILT
1.0
µ
F
Figure 22. AD1848K External Filter Capacitor Connections
The crystals shown in the crystal connection circuitry of Figure
23 should be fundamental-mode and parallel-tuned. Two
sources for the exact crystals specified are Component Market-
ing Services in Massachusetts, U.S. at 617-762-4339 and Cardi-
nal Components in New Jersey, U.S. at 201-746-0333. Note
that using the exact data sheet frequencies is not required and
that external clock sources can be used to overdrive the
AD1848K's internal oscillators. (See the description of the
CFS2:0 control bits above.) If using an external clock source,
apply it to the crystal input pins while leaving the crystal output
pins unconnected. Attention should be paid to providing low jit-
ter external input clocks.
XTAL1O
XTAL1I
20­64pF
24.576MHz
20­64pF
XTAL2O
XTAL2I
20­64pF
16.9344MHz
20­64pF
Figure 23. AD1848K Crystal Connections
Analog Devices also recommends a pull-down resistor for
PWRDWN
.
Good, standard engineering practices should be applied for
power supply decoupling. Decoupling capacitors should be
placed as close as possible to package pins. If a separate analog
power supply is not available, we recommend the circuit shown
in Figure 24 for using a single +5 V supply. Ferrite beads suffice
for the inductors shown. This circuitry should be as close to the
supply pins as is practical.
+5V SUPPLY
1.6
1
µ
F
0.1
µ
F
V
DD
0.1
µ
F
FERRITE
V
CC
V
DD
0.1
µ
F
V
DD
0.1
µ
F
V
DD
0.1
µ
F
V
DD
0.1
µ
F
V
DD
0.1
µ
F
V
DD
0.1
µ
F
0.1
µ
F
FERRITE
0.1
µ
F
1
µ
F
V
CC
1
µ
F
Figure 24. AD1848K Recommended Power Supply
Bypassing
Analog Devices recommends a split ground plane as shown in
Figure 25. The analog plane and the digital plane are connected
directly under the AD1848K. Splitting the ground plane directly
under the SoundPort Codec is optimal because analog pins will
be located above the analog ground plane and digital pins will
be located directly above the digital ground plane for the best
isolation. The digital ground and analog grounds should be tied
together in the vicinity of the AD1848K. Other schemes may
also yield satisfactory results. If the split ground plane recom-
mended here is not possible, the AD1848K should be entirely
over the analog ground plane with the 74_245 transceiver over
the digital plane.
GNDD
GNDD
R_AUX2
R_FILT
DIGITAL GROUND PLANE
ANALOG GROUND PLANE
AD1848K
Figure 25. AD1848K Recommended Ground Plane
AD1848K
REV. 0
­27­
FREQUENCY RESPONSE PLOTS
10
­120
1.0
­90
­110
0.1
­100
0.0
­60
­80
­70
­50
­30
­20
0
­10
­40
0.8
0.9
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
dB
SAMPLE FREQUENCY (F
S
)
Figure 26. AD1848K Analog-to-Digital Frequency
Response (Full-Scale Line-Level Inputs, 0 dB Gain)
10
­120
0.60
­90
­110
0.42
­100
0.40
­60
­80
­70
­50
­30
­20
0
­10
­40
0.56
0.58
0.54
0.52
0.50
0.48
0.46
0.44
dB
SAMPLE FREQUENCY (F
S
)
Figure 27. AD1848K Analog-to-Digital Frequency
Response--Transition Band (Full-Scale Line-Level
Inputs, 0 dB Gain)
10
­120
1.0
­90
­110
0.1
­100
0.0
­60
­80
­70
­50
­30
­20
0
­10
­40
0.8
0.9
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
dB
SAMPLE FREQUENCY (F
S
)
Figure 28. AD1848K Digital-to-Analog Frequency
Response (Full-Scale Inputs, 0 dB Attenuation)
10
­120
0.60
­90
­110
0.42
­100
0.40
­60
­80
­70
­50
­30
­20
0
­10
­40
0.56
0.58
0.54
0.52
0.50
0.48
0.46
0.44
dB
SAMPLE FREQUENCY (F
S
)
Figure 29. AD1848K Digital-to-Analog Frequency
Response--Transition Band (Full-Scale Inputs, 0 dB
Attenuation)
AD1848K
REV. 0
­28­
C1847­10­10/93
PRINTED IN U.S.A.
OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
Dimensions shown in inches and (mm).
P-68A
68-Lead Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier
0.029 (0.74)
0.027 (0.69)
0.019 (0.48)
0.017 (0.43)
0.175 (4.45)
0.169 (4.29)
0.925 (23.50)
0.895 (22.73)
0.104 (2.64) TYP
0.050
(1.27)
TYP
0.954 (24.23)
0.950 (24.13)
SQ
0.995 (25.27)
0.885 (22.48)
SQ
44
43
26
10
9
60
61
27
TOP VIEW
PIN 1
IDENTIFIER
ST-64
64-Lead Thin Quad Flatpack
0.031 (0.80)
0.014 (0.35)
49
1
64
48
33
32
17
16
TOP VIEW
SQ
0.551
±
0.004
(14.00
±
0.10)
SQ
0.630
±
0.009
(16.00
±
0.25)
12
°
TYP
0.055
±
0.002
(1.40
±
0.05)
0.063 (1.60) MAX
0.024
±
0.006
(0.60
±
0.15)
6
°
±
4
°
0.007 (0.17) MAX
0.004 (0.102)
MAX
LEAD
COPLANARITY
0
°
­ 7
°
SEATING
PLANE
INDEX
PAGE
PRODUCT OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
ORDERING GUIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
PINOUTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
PIN DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
AUDIO FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Analog Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Analog Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Analog-to-Digital Datapath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Digital-to-Analog Datapath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Digital Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Analog Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Digital Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Power Supplies and Voltage Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Clocks and Sample Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
CONTROL REGISTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Control Register Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Direct Control Register Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Indirect Control Register Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
DATA AND CONTROL TRANSFERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Data Ordering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Control and Programmed I/O (PIO) Transfers . . . . . . . . 21
Direct Memory Access (DMA) Transfers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Single-Channel DMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
DMA Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
DMA Interrupt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
POWER UP AND RESET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
AUTOCALIBRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
CHANGING SAMPLE RATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
APPLICATIONS CIRCUITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
FREQUENCY RESPONSE PLOTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
PACKAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
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